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ASTM E2563 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method
This practice allows for the recovery and enumeration of viable and culturable, non-tuberculosis, rapidly growing Mycobacteria ( M. immunogenum , M. chelonae , M. absessus , M. fortuitum , and M. smegmatis ) in the presence of high Gram-negative background populations in metalworking fluid field samples. During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. This population is predominantly comprised of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids has been...
ASTM E2564 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method
During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. Measurement of mycobacterial cell count densities is an important step in establishing a possible relationship between mycobacteria and occupational health-related allergic responses, for example, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in persons exposed to aerosols of metalworking fluids. It is known that the viable mycobacteria count underestimates the total mycobacterial levels by not counting the non-culturable, possibly dead or moribund population...
Microorganismes dans les fontaines biologiques de dégraissage
Évaluation de l'exposition professionnelle dans les ateliers d'entretien mécanique Les fontaines biologiques appelées fontaines de biodégradation ou simplement biofontaines contiennent des dégraissants qui renferment des bactéries dont la tâche est de dégrader, par minéralisation, les salissures hydrocarbonées (huiles et graisses). Les fabricants de dégraissants pour biofontaines affirment que les microorganismes utilisés dans leurs préparations sont inoffensifs puisqu'ils se classent dans le groupe...
Pneumopathies d'hypersensibilité professionnelles
Les pneumopathies d'hypersensibilité (PHS) sont des pathologies immunologiques allergiques, non IgE médiées, en relation avec l'exposition à de nombreuses substances organiques et quelques substances chimiques de bas poids moléculaire. D'après les données épidémiologiques disponibles, la prévalence de cette maladie reste rare, les formes les plus fréquentes étant la maladie du " poumon de fermier ", celle " des éleveurs d'oiseaux " et les PHS aux fluides de coupe contaminées...
Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four...
Occupational Exposure to Bioaerosols in Norwegian Crab Processing Plants
Introduction: Aerosolization of components when processing king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and edible crab (Cancer pagurus) may cause occupational health problems when inhaled by workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three king crab plants and one edible crab plant. Personal exposure measurements were performed throughout work shifts. Air was collected for measurement of tropomyosin, total protein, endotoxin, trypsin, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). T-tests and ANOVAs were used to compare the levels of exposure in the different plants and areas in the...
Vital Signs: Deficiencies in Environmental Control Identified in Outbreaks of Legionnaires’ Disease
North America, 2000-2014 Background: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella, is increasing in the United States. During 2000–2014, the rate of reported legionellosis cases increased from 0.42 to 1.62 per 100,000 persons; 4% of reported cases were outbreak-associated. Legionella is transmitted through aerosolization of contaminated water. A new industry standard for prevention of Legionella growth and transmission in water systems in buildings was published in 2015. CDC investigated outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease...
Pulmonary illness as a consequence of occupational exposure to shrimp shell powder
OBJECTIVES: An employee with no prior history of allergy or asthma, experienced respiratory and flu-like symptoms during production of shrimp shell powder in a seafood savory factory in Norway. We aimed to clarify the diagnosis and to identify the cause of the symptoms by specific inhalation challenge (SIC) and by characterizing the powder's biocontaminants, particle size fractions and inflammatory potential. METHODS: Respiratory and immunological responses were measured the day before and after each of four challenges with 20-150g shrimp shell powder during three consecutive days. The powder...
Waste Workers’ Exposure to Airborne Fungal and Bacterial Species in the Truck Cab and During Waste Collection
A large number of people work with garbage collection, and exposure to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. However, knowledge on microbial exposure at species level is limited. The aim of the study was to achieve knowledge on waste collectors' exposure to airborne inhalable fungal and bacterial species during waste collection with focus on the transport of airborne microorganisms into the truck cab. Airborne microorganisms were collected with samplers mounted in the truck cab, on the workers' clothes, and outdoors. Fungal and bacterial species were quantified and...
Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Female Textile Workers in Shanghai, China, Exposed to Metals, Solvents, Chemicals, and Endotoxin
Follow-Up to a Nested Case-Cohort Study Objective: We studied associations between pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures to metals, solvents, chemicals, and endotoxin in a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China. To assess the longer-term influences of these agents on pancreatic cancer we extended follow-up of this previously studied cohort. Methods: We utilized a job exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures for 481 pancreatic cancer cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort of 3191 non-cases. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional...
Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to particles may be associated with increased inflammation of the airways. Animal experiments suggest that inhaled particles also induce a pulmonary acute phase response, leading to systemic circulation of acute phase proteins. Greenhouse workers are exposed to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined in serum...
Détection moléculaire des bactéries du genre Légionella dans l’eau des tours de refroidissement et l’eau de consommation
Les bactéries du genre Legionella sont répandues dans plusieurs environnements tant naturels qu'artificiels. Les concentrations rencontrées dans les environnements naturels sont très faibles. Les phénomènes de contamination se rencontrent principalement dans les réservoirs artificiels où les températures de l'eau sont maintenues entre 25 et 42 °C, et où existe une certaine stagnation ainsi que la présence de dépôts, de biofilms et d'amibes. Les bains à remous, les piscines, les condensateurs...
Antibiorésistance et conséquences en santé au travail pour les soignants
Le dévellopement et la diffusion des bactéries multirésistantes (BMR) posent la question d'un éventuel risque professionnel supplémentaire pour les soigants exposés. Peu de cas sont décrits dans la littérature. Un dépistage orienté peut être organisé dans certaines circonstances (infections nosocomiales, épidémies...). Les mesures de prévention reposent sur le respect des mesures appliquées dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission croisée des bactéries...
Endotoxin in metal working fluid (MWF) mist
The risks to respiratory health from exposure to bacterial endotoxins are well established. The aims of this research were to: Review the evidence used to develop the health based recommended occupational exposure limit (HBROEL) for endotoxin of 90 endotoxin units per cubic metre (EU/m3) over an 8-hour period proposed by the Health Council for the Netherlands (DECOS); and to assess its relevance as a ‘benchmark' to assess risks to respiratory health caused by endotoxin in metal working fluid mists. Assess whether the published evidence on endotoxin concentration in metal working fluids...
The influence of gypsum in animal slurry systems on the generation of hydrogen sulphide
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of gypsum (calcium sulphate) on bacterial populations in slurry systems and, as a consequence, its potential to enhance hydrogen sulphide (H2S) generation. The study focused on three slurry / bedding types: slurry from dairy farms that use either a non-slatted collection system or a slatted system, and dry, soiled bedding recovered from sheds used to house beef cattle over winter. There is clear evidence that the presence of gypsum in slurry will enhance the potential for generation of toxic H2S gas. The levels of the gas produced, even from...
Dust, Endotoxin, Fungi, and Bacteria Exposure as Determined by Work Task, Season, and Type of Plant in a Flower Greenhouse
Background: Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure. Methods: Seventy-six personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 38 employees in a Danish flower greenhouse producing Campanula...
Archaea des bioaérosols de fermes laitières, des poulaillers et des usines d’épuration des eaux usées
Leur rôle dans l'inflammation pulmonaire Dans la présente étude, afin de définir l'exposition des travailleurs aux bioaérosols, nous avons utilisé des méthodes de biologie moléculaire pour décrire la biodiversité des bactéries et des archaea de l'air de plusieurs environnements de travail. Nous avons donc caractérisé le contenu en bactéries et en archaea des bioaérosols de fermes laitières, de poulaillers et d'établissements de traitement des eaux usées et...
Legionnaires' disease
Technical guidance This guidance is for dutyholders, which includes employers, those in control of premises and those with health and safety responsibilities for others, to help them comply with their legal duties. These include identifying and assessing sources of risk, preparing a scheme to prevent or control risk, implementing, managing and monitoring precautions, keeping records of precautions and appointing a manager responsible for others. The guidance gives practical advice on the legal requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health...
Investigation of respiratory and dermal symptoms associated with metal working fluids at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility
Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods Four hundred seven...
Copper ionisation systems – What is the issue over copper ionisation in legionella control?
For users and suppliers of water treatment systems that use elemental copper for legionella control ie copper ionisation systems – it is important to read the updated information relating to the application for essential use derogation. Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/faqs.htm#silver-copper-systems?eban=rss -
Projet de règlement relatif à l’entretien des tours de refroidissement d’eau
Pour faire suite à l'épisode de légionellose durant l'été 2012, le gouvernement a déposé, dans la Gazette officielle du Québec du 16 janvier 2013, un projet de règlement modifiant le Code de sécurité du Québec (bâtiment). Il s'agit de l'ajout des dispositions relatives à l'entretien des tours de refroidissement d'eau. Les exigences incluent l'élaboration et le respect d'un programme d'entretien, la tenue d'un registre des vérifications et la transmission...
Metalworking Fluids & Legionnaires Disease
New guidance on the risk of Legionnaires' disease from water mix metal working fluids (MWFs) has been published. Recent research shows there is a minimal risk of Legionella bacteria contaminating such a system, if the system is properly managed. It is suggested that, following HSE’s existing guidance on managing bacterial contamination of metalworking fluids, should be sufficient to control the risks. Under normal circumstances there is no need for any additional measures. Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/metalworking/legionella.htm?ebul=gd-engineering&cr=3/sept12
HSE tells companies to improve their management of legionella risks
Businesses are being told to do more to protect workers and members of the public from exposure to legionella. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has issued a safety notice after identifying common failings in legionella control from a review of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in GB over the past ten years. HSE's findings confirmed that cooling towers and evaporative condensers are the most common source of significant outbreaks. Ninety per cent of outbreaks stem from failure to recognise potential legionella problems or to adopt effective control measures. Source : http://www.hse...
Étude pilote pour évaluer la contamination bactérienne des serviettes en papier non usagées et la contamination possible des mains lors du séchage
Ce travail mené au Canada a pour but de déterminer la contamination bactériologique (quantité et diversité) de six marques de serviettes en papier utilisées pour le séchage des mains. L'étude a aussi évalué, pour une seule marque de serviette, la transmission de ces bactéries sur les mains des utilisateurs ainsi que la transmission aéroportée lors du séchage. Source : McCusky Gendron L, Trudel L, Moineau S, Duchaine C . Évaluation of bacterial contaminants found on unused paper towels and...
Survival of Legionella pneumophila in metalworking fluids
HSE asked HSL to gather supporting evidence as to whether or not water miscible MWFs pose a Legionella infection risk and whether a Legionella risk assessment and appropriate actions are necessary. Three short studies were undertaken with the aim of determining a) whether free living Legionella survive in different types of MWF, b) whether amoebae, that act as hosts for the replication of Legionella, survive in different types of MWF and c) whether a greater concentration of Legionella cells can be detected in samples of used water-miscible MWFs compared to samples of potable mains water used in...
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