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Association of hand and arm disinfection with asthma control in US nurses
Objectives: To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. Methods: In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Nurses were asked about the daily frequency...
Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. The long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. Objectives: This paper aims to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and chronic airway obstruction. Methods: The ECRHS study has investigated a multi-centre population based cohort...
Health problems and disinfectant product exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital
Background: Hospital staff expressed health concerns after a surface disinfectant product containing hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid was introduced. We sought to determine if this product posed a health hazard. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire on work and health characteristics was completed by 163 current staff. Symptoms that improved away from work were considered work-related. Forty-nine air samples were taken for hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using Poisson regression, and standardized morbidity...
Behaviour of chemical respiratory allergens in novel predictive methods for skin sensitisation
Asthma resulting from sensitisation of the respiratory tract to chemicals is an important occupational health issue, presenting many toxicological challenges. Most importantly there are no recognised predictive methods for respiratory allergens. Nevertheless, it has been found that all known chemical respiratory allergens elicit positive responses in assays for skin sensitising chemicals. Thus, chemicals failing to induce a positive response in skin sensitisation assays such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA) lack not only skin sensitising activity, but also the potential to cause respiratory...
Rhinite et asthme en relation avec les activités de soudage et de brasage
Les différents procédés de soudage et techniques connexes ont la particularité de générer des fumées dont la composition et l'intensité d'émission varient selon la technique employée et la nature des métaux travaillés. Si le caractère irritant des fumées de soudage peut en lui-même induire ou aggraver une rhinite ou un asthme, certains de leurs constituants peuvent également être impliqués dans l'apparition de rhinite et d'asthme par l'intermédiaire...
Occupational health risks associated with the use of germicides in health care
Environmental surfaces have been clearly linked to transmission of key pathogens in health care facilities, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus , Clostridium difficile , norovirus, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli. For this reason, routine disinfection of environmental surfaces in patient rooms is recommended. In addition, decontamination of shared medical devices between use by different patients is also recommended. Environmental surfaces and noncritical shared medical devices are decontaminated by low-level disinfectants, most...
Respiratory morbidity in a coffee processing workplace with sentinel obliterative bronchiolitis cases
Rationale: Obliterative bronchiolitis in former coffee workers prompted a cross-sectional study of current workers. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels were highest in areas for flavoring and grinding/packaging unflavored coffee. Methods: We interviewed 75 (88%) workers, measured lung function, and created exposure groups based on work history. We calculated standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) for symptoms and spirometric abnormalities. We examined health outcomes by exposure groups. Results: SMRs were elevated 1.6-fold for dyspnea and 2.7-fold for obstruction. The exposure group working in both...
Asthme aggravé par le travail
L'asthme aggravé par le travail (AAT) est défini comme un asthme préexistant aux expositions professionnelles, mais dont l'évolution est influencée par celles-ci. Sa fréquence est globalement estimée à 20 % des sujets asthmatiques en activité. De nombreuses expositions professionnelles ont été identifiées comme pouvant être responsables, parmi lesquelles celles aux poussières inorganiques (chantiers de construction), aux produits de nettoyage, aux vapeurs d'acides ou de bases, aux solvants...
Exposition à des agents pouvant causer l’asthme professionnel
Utilisation du test d'activation des basophiles pour l'identification précoce de la sensibilisation allergique chez les travailleurs L'asthme professionnel est un type d'asthme causé par un agent présent dans les milieux de travail. Le type principal d'asthme professionnel est celui qui est causé par le développement d'une « allergie » à certains agents présents dans le milieu de travail. La mise en évidence de cette « allergie » est une étape essentielle de l'investigation clinique...
Cleaning products and short-term respiratory effects among female cleaners with asthma
Objective: We evaluated the short-term effects of exposure to cleaning products on lung function and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaning women. Methods: Twenty-one women with current asthma and employed as professional cleaners participated in a 15-day panel study. During 312 person-days of data collection, participants self-reported their use of cleaning products and respiratory symptoms in daily diaries and recorded their forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) three times per day using a handheld spirometer. We evaluated associations of cleaning product...
Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation
There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological...
Troubles psychiatriques chez les patients soumis à une évaluation relative à l’asthme professionnel
Prévalence et impact sur la situation d’emploi et l’utilisation des services de santé L’asthme professionnel (AP) est un important problème de santé au travail qui a un impact tant sur le secteur de l’emploi que sur les ressources en santé et l’individu lui-même. Entre 10 % et 30 % des asthmatiques qui le sont devenus à l’âge adulte mentionnent que leur asthme s’aggrave au travail et qu’il est souvent difficile à diagnostiquer et à traiter. La majorité (environ 70 %) des patients...
Diisocyanate and Non-Diisocyanate Sensitizer-Induced Occupational Asthma Frequency During 2003 to 2007 in Ontario, Canada
Objective: To investigate proportions and outcomes of isocyanate and other causes of occupational asthma (OA) claims in Ontario, Canada, 2003 to 2007. Methods: New accepted workers' compensation claims for OA compensated by the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There were 112 allowed claims for OA—30 (26.8%) from diisocyanates (ISO) and 82 (73.2%) from other causes (non-diisocyanates [N-ISO]). The most common occupations for ISO OA were production workers (50%). The most common agents in the N-ISO group were flour (13%) and metal dusts...
Work aggravated asthma
A review of reviews Seven percent of the adult population have asthma, a condition commonly made worse by inhaling irritant exposures at work; termed work-aggravated asthma (WAA). A variety of factors that cause WAA have been identified by this review, including inhaled exposures, physical factors and behavioural issues. WAA is common. A recent comprehensive review identified that more than 1 in 5 workers with asthma have this condition. There are, however, no GB based prevalence estimates. WAA is an unpleasant condition. Workers complain of cough, wheeze, chest tightness and shortness of breath...
Asthme professionnel aux sulfites
Cette fiche d'allergologie-pneumologie professionnelle annule et remplace l'ancienne fiche du même nom (TR 17). Elle fait le point sur les sulfites, sels de l'anhydride sulfureux (SO2), qui sont utilisés dans de nombreux secteurs d'activité, notamment pour leurs propriétés antiseptiques et anti-oxydantes. Si l'intolérance aux sulfites, notamment chez les sujets asthmatiques, est bien connue lors de l'ingestion d'aliments ou de boissons, ou lors de l'administration de produits pharmaceutiques en contenant, seuls quelques cas...
Mesure de l'exposition aux moisissures et atteintes respiratoires chez les affineurs de fromages
L'affinage de fromages nécessite des conditions d'humidité et de température favorables à la présence de moisissures, parfois typiques d'une région. Le travail en cave d'affinage va exposer les salariés à ces moisissures dont certaines espèces, nécessaires à la qualité du produit fini, sont connues pour être allergisantes. Certains de ces salariés peuvent développer des signes respiratoires plus ou moins marqués (rhinite...) qui pourront conduire à des pathologies...
Research shows that early workplace screening can play a key role in preventing occupational asthma and lung disease.
Anyone with asthma will tell you just how uncomfortable and frightening the respiratory disease can be. The narrowing of the airways causes difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, wheezing, coughing, and exhaustion. When a substance or condition in the workplace causes the chronic condition, it's known as occupational asthma. New research indicates that early changes in lung function are a predictor of this and other lung diseases. It also shows there's much more employers can do to screen those at risk of developing lung problems and provide comprehensive exposure...
Genetic Variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Genes Are Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Asthma
Objective: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). Methods: The study population consisted of 140 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina GoldenGate major histocompatibility complex panels. Results: The HLA-E rs1573294 and HLA-DPB1 rs928976 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of DA under dominant (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37 to 16.6; OR, 2.79, 95% CI, 0.99 to 7.81, respectively) and...
L’absence d’éosinophilie bronchique est-elle un facteur de mauvais pronostic de l’asthme professionnel?
L'asthme est une maladie inflammatoire des bronches qui se traduit par une respiration sifflante, de la toux et de la difficulté à respirer. Ces symptômes s'accompagnent de changements de la fonction respiratoire qui comprennent une obstruction des bronches ainsi qu'une irritabilité anormale de celles-ci. L'inflammation présente dans l'asthme correspond la plupart du temps à la présence de cellules appelées éosinophiles. L'asthme professionnel (AP) est un asthme qui est causé par une allergie à un...
Cross-Sectional Survey of Workers Exposed to Aliphatic Diisocyanates Using Detailed Respiratory Medical History and Questions Regarding Accidental Skin and Respiratory Exposures
Objectives: To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates. Methods: Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma. Results: No cases of occupational asthma were identified...
A survey of exposure to enzymes in cleaning solutions used to clean endoscopes - RR972
Proteolytic enzymes are a recognised risk for respiratory and dermal allergy. Cases of asthma have been identified in health care workers using cleaning solutions containing these enzymes to decontaminate endoscopes and surgical equipment. An assessment was made of three hospitals using enzyme products to clean endoscopes. Air samples showed that approximately a third of the personal and a half of the static air samples contained protease activity at levels that may pose risk for allergic sensitisation. Wipe samples demonstrated protease on surfaces where manual pre-cleaning of endoscopes was undertaken...
Investigation of respiratory and dermal symptoms associated with metal working fluids at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility
Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods Four hundred seven...
Are Operating Room Nurses at Higher Risk of Severe Persistent Asthma? The Nurses' Health Study
Objective : To assess the associations between operating room (OR) nursing, a category of health care workers at high risk of exposure to various inhaled agents, and asthma severity/control among women with asthma. Methods : The level of severity/control in nurses with prevalent doctor-diagnosed asthma in 1998/2000 was compared, using nominal logistic regression, in OR nursing (n = 69) and administrative nursing (n = 546) from the US Nurses' Health Study for whom detailed information on asthma and nursing employment status was available. Results : We observed a significant association between...
Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to EDTA-containing detergents or disinfectants
Background: Detergents and disinfectants are an emerging cause of work-related rhinitis and asthma. These products may contain ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The authors report 10 cases of EDTA-related asthma and/or rhinitis. Methods: Review of the medical charts of patients who presented with work-related rhinitis (alone or with asthma), with a history of exposure to aerosols of EDTA-containing products and who underwent a nasal provocation test (NPT) with tetrasodium EDTA (1–4%) in our occupational health unit. Results: Twenty-eight patients underwent a NPT with EDTA, which was...
Quality of life of patients with asthma related to damp and moldy work environments
Objective: Long-term outcomes of asthma related to exposure to workplace dampness are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with asthma related to damp and moldy workplaces and characterize factors influencing QOL. Methods: Using a questionnaire, we followed 1267 patients previously examined for suspected occupational respiratory disease related to exposure to damp and moldy indoor environments. In addition to demographic and other background data, the questionnaire included sections on current employment status, QOL, anxiety and depression...
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