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Exposition des professionnels médicaux aux rayonnements ionisants et risque de cancer
Les expositions aux rayonnements ionisants (RI) à forte dose ont été reconnues comme facteur de risque de cancers (1). Les effets à long terme des rayonnements ionisants à faibles et moyennes doses restent débattus. De nombreuses études épidémiologiques portant sur le suivi des survivants des bombardements d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki et sur le suivi des travailleurs exposés aux RI ont montré des augmentations de risque de cancer et de pathologies cardiovasculaires (2). Les professionnels de santé, notamment...
Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk
Background: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO. Methods: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated. Results: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the...
Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease
An update of a Danish cohort study among utility workers Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period of follow-up. Methods: We investigated the risks for dementia, motor neurone disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy among 32,006 men employed at the 99 utility companies that supplied Denmark with electricity during the period...
Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters
Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis...
Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposures
A systematic literature review and meta-analyses Objectives: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies fulfilling good scientific epidemiological standards for use in meta-analyses of relevant risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Methods: Our search identified 103 original publications on associations between work and Parkinson's disease. GRADE guidelines were used to ensure high scientific quality, and reliable guidelines were applied to classify the papers. Of the 103 articles, 47 fulfilled good scientific standards while 56 were methodologically deficient and thus...
Rayonnements optiques & électromagnétiques au travail
Pour accompagner les entreprises dans l'amélioration de la prévention des risques professionnels, l'INRS a organisé le colloque " Rayonnements optiques & électromagnétiques - De l'exposition à la prévention " en octobre 2015 à Paris. Durant trois jours, ce colloque a rassemblé près de 300 participants de profils variés : médecins du travail, IPRP, préventeurs d'entreprise, préventeurs institutionnels, scientifiques, consultants, bureaux d'études, organismes...
Guide to the Electromagnetic Fields Regulations 2016
Electromagnetic fields are generated whenever electricity is used. These guidelines explain the main provisions of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Electromagnetic Fields) Regulations, 2016 (S.I. No. 337 of 2016) in a user friendly way. Source: http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Publications_and_Forms/Publications/Latest_Publications/Guide_to_the_Electromagnetic_Fields_Regulations_2016.71995.shortcut.html
Association between high ambient temperature and acute work-related injury
A case-crossover analysis using workers' compensation claims data This study found that high ambient temperatures are associated with increased risk of serious acute work-related injury for some worker subgroups. It expanded on previous research by assessing associations with both daily minimum and maximum temperatures, by using a novel approach to occupational characteristics classification, and by using a case-crossover study design. Study findings provide evidence to inform prevention strategies. Source: McInnes JA, Akram M, MacFarlane EM, Keegel T, Sim MR, Smith P. (2016). Scand J Work...
Experimental analysis of radiographer exposure to the static field from a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging machine
Introduction. This study measures the exposure of occupational therapists from a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine. Method. A total of 14 time-series on each of the chest, head and hand were taken before and after different MRI procedures. The peak values were noted in each case together with an average of all data recorded in the time-series. Results. The highest exposure recorded was observed on the hand, followed by the head and the chest. The overall maximum exposure (1479.40 mT) recorded was observed on the hand during a change of coil. It was also observed that the recorded exposure...
Staff exposure to pulsed magnetic fields during depression treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation
Introduction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/rTMS) are currently used in research and treatments of diseases of the central nervous system, such as recurring depression. Strong electric pulses are used to produce strong pulsed magnetic fields that are directed to the patient's cerebral cortex where the fields induce electric pulses. The pulses may be causing unnecessary exposure of the staff. Method. The MagVenture TMS/rTMS system was investigated, without patient presence, through measurements of magnetic field pulses at varying distances...
The risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding
Objectives: There are indications that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases the risk of cataract, but there is only circumstantial evidence that metal welding, an important occupational source of UVR exposure, is a risk factor. The objective of this study is to unravel if metal welding increases the risk of cataract. Method: We compared the risk of being diagnosed with cataract from 1987–2012 in a historic cohort of 4288 male metal arc welders against a reference group comprised of Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. For the welders' cohort...
Exposition au rayonnement ultraviolet solaire: un sujet brûlant?
Le soleil peut être néfaste pour la santé de l'homme au-delà d'un certain seuil. Plus que les expositions occasionnelles, ce sont les expositions chroniques qui sont responsables de la grande majorité des cancers cutanés liés aux UV et qui touchent de nombreux travailleurs exerçant leur activité en plein air. L'exposition solaire ne doit pas être qu'une question de santé publique: elle doit également être posée dans le milieu professionnel. Source: Vernez, David, Backes, Claudine et Antoine...
Ototoxic chemicals
Chemicals that result in hearing loss It is well documented that occupational noise exposure is a significant health hazard that leads to permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and we have the National Exposure Standard for Occupational Noise to deal with this. It is less well known that a substantial number of medications and common industrial chemicals can also cause hearing loss themselves or exacerbate the effects of noise. These chemicals are said to be ototoxic (oto = ear, toxic = poisonous). They may damage the cochlea in the inner ear and/or the auditory neurological pathways leading...
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. Methods: We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. Results: The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9?V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P?<?0.05). The prevalence of menstrual disorder was 12.0% in the unexposed group, but was 26.8% and 33...
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments
Occupational exposure to heat can result in injuries, disease, reduced productivity, and death. To address this hazard, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has evaluated the scientific data on heat stress and hot environments and has updated the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments. This document was last updated in 1986, and in recent years, including during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response of 2010, questions were raised regarding the need for revision to reflect recent research and findings. This revision includes...
Mise à jour de la norme servant à mesurer l’exposition aux rayonnements
La récente mise à jour de la norme ISO 15382:2015 "Radioprotection - Procédures pour la surveillance des doses au cristallin, à la peau et aux extrémités" se concentre sur la réalisation d'une mesure juste de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants pour une situation donnée. Elle prend en considération les enseignements tirés des plus récentes études et permet d'améliorer les mesurages de routine en matière de dosimétrie. Les rayonnements ionisants sont utilisés...
Deux guides pratiques pour aider les employeurs à se conformer à la directive "champs électromagnétiques"
La Commission européenne vient d'éditer deux guides pratiques pour aider les employeurs à comprendre ce qu'ils devront mettre en œuvre pour se conformer à la directive 2013/35/UE sur les champs électromagnétiques. Cette directive devra être transposée en droit national de tous les États membres de l'UE le 1er juillet 2016. Le guide se compose de deux volumes. Le premier volume contient un ensemble d'indications non-contraignantes destinées à éclairer les entreprises sur la manière d'évaluer...
Exposure to MRI-related magnetic fields and vertigo in MRI workers
Objectives: Vertigo has been reported by people working around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and was found to increase with increasing strength of scanner magnets. This suggests an association with exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and/or motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF). This study assessed the association between various metrics of shift-long exposure to SMF and TVMF and self-reported vertigo among MRI workers. Methods: We analysed 358 shifts from 234 employees at 14 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. Participants used logbooks to report vertigo experienced...
Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology
Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking...
Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation
A study in a Mediterranean climate Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion...
Anatomical UV Exposure in French Outdoor Workers
Background: Solar ultraviolet has been recognized as the main causative factor for skin cancer and is currently classified as a carcinogenic agent by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Method: Results from a previous phone survey conducted in 2012 in France were used to assess exposure conditions to sun among outdoor workers. Satellite data were used in combination with an exposure model to assess anatomical exposure. Result: The yearly median exposure of the outdoor worker population is 77?kJ/m2 to 116?kJ/m2. Road workers, building workers, and gardeners are the more exposed. About 70...
Ambiances thermiques
Quand le travail quitte sa zone de confort Que ce soit à l'extérieur ou à l'intérieur des locaux, la température du lieu de travail influe sur le confort des opérateurs. Si elle est particulièrement élevée ou basse, ce sont la santé et la sécurité de chacun qui peuvent être mises en jeu. La maîtrise des ambiances thermiques et de l'organisation à mettre en place joue alors un rôle essentiel dans la prévention des risques professionnels. Source: Travail & Sécurité...
Réalisation des études dosimétriques de poste de travail présentant un risque d’exposition aux rayonnements ionisants
Ce guide propose une approche méthodologique d'aide à la réalisation d'études dosimétriques de poste de travail nécessaires pour bien identifier les risques d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants, mettre en œuvre le processus d'optimisation de la radioprotection et classer les travailleurs. Il est complété par des rappels sur les principaux objectifs associés à l'étude de poste, le contexte règlementaire, les sources et modes d'exposition et les grandeurs dosimétriques utiles...
Les champs électromagnétiques
Présents dans toutes les activités professionnelles mais principalement dans le secteur industriel, les rayonnements électromagnétiques ne sont pas sans conséquences sur la santé. S'il est avéré qu'ils sont déjà à l'origine de certains effets à court terme, ils sont également soupçonnés d'en provoquer d'autres à plus long terme. Source: Travail & Sécurité , octobre 2015, n° 765. http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/champs%20electromagnetiques...
Electrocardiographic Responses During Fire Suppression and Recovery Among Experienced Firefighters
Objective: We sought to evaluate the impact of high-intensity exertion and heat stress on electrocardiographic changes during fire suppression and recovery. Methods: Healthy firefighters completed a live-fire training evolution. Each firefighter was randomly assigned to complete either two or three intervals of fire suppression tasks followed by a structured recovery. Firefighters were continuously monitored using 12-lead Holter electrocardiogram. Results: Most firefighters (71.4%) exceeded their maximum heart rate and one third had pathological ST events. Nearly one third of each of these abnormalities...
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