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Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking Water Pipe Repairs
Cured-in-place-pipe (CIPP) is the most popular water pipe repair method used in the U.S. for sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and is increasingly being used for drinking water pipe repairs. Today, approximately 50% of all damaged pipes are being repaired using CIPP technology. The CIPP procedure involves the chemical manufacture of a new plastic pipe called a CIPP inside a damaged water pipe. Little is known about CIPP worker exposures and health risks. CIPP manufacturing sites are highly transient, with a single installation location being used from a few hours to a few days. Unlike traditional manufacturing...
Intervention to diminish dehydration and kidney damage
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the potential to reduce kidney function damage during the implementation of a water, rest, shade (WRS) and efficiency intervention program among sugarcane workers. Methods: A WRS intervention program adapted from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) coupled with an efficiency program began two months into the 5-month harvest. One of the two groups of workers studied was provided with portable water reservoirs, mobile shaded tents, and scheduled rest periods. Health data (anthropometric and questionnaires), blood, and urine were...
Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters
Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis...
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. Methods: We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. Results: The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9?V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P?<?0.05). The prevalence of menstrual disorder was 12.0% in the unexposed group, but was 26.8% and 33...
Exposure to MRI-related magnetic fields and vertigo in MRI workers
Objectives: Vertigo has been reported by people working around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and was found to increase with increasing strength of scanner magnets. This suggests an association with exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and/or motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF). This study assessed the association between various metrics of shift-long exposure to SMF and TVMF and self-reported vertigo among MRI workers. Methods: We analysed 358 shifts from 234 employees at 14 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. Participants used logbooks to report vertigo experienced...
Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology
Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking...
Electrocardiographic Responses During Fire Suppression and Recovery Among Experienced Firefighters
Objective: We sought to evaluate the impact of high-intensity exertion and heat stress on electrocardiographic changes during fire suppression and recovery. Methods: Healthy firefighters completed a live-fire training evolution. Each firefighter was randomly assigned to complete either two or three intervals of fire suppression tasks followed by a structured recovery. Firefighters were continuously monitored using 12-lead Holter electrocardiogram. Results: Most firefighters (71.4%) exceeded their maximum heart rate and one third had pathological ST events. Nearly one third of each of these abnormalities...
Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers
An international cohort study Background: There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted lowdose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the...
Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants
Background: Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods: Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results: Of 2654 women interviewed...
Do Older Firefighters Show Long-Term Adaptations to Work in the Heat?
Older experienced firefighters may show signs of heat adaptation, and thus reduced physiological strain, due to repeated occupational heat stress exposure. The aim was to examine physiological and perceptual strain, and hydration, responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 12 older Non-Firefighter (Non-FF) and experienced Firefighter (FF) males, pair matched for age (Group mean ± SE: Non-FF = 51.7 ± 1.5, FF = 49.8 ± 1.1 years), VO2peak (Non-FF = 39.4 ± 2.2, FF = 40.7 ± 1.8 mL·kg−1·min−1), body surface area (Non-FF = 1.94 ±...
Core temperature and heart rate response to repeated bouts of firefighting activities
During live-fire firefighting operations and training evolutions, firefighters often consume multiple cylinders of air and continue to wear their personal protective equipment even after fire suppression activities have ceased. However, most studies have only reported core temperature changes during short-term firefighting activities and have shown a very modest increase in core temperature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate core temperature and heart rate (HR) during repeated bouts of firefighting activity over ∼3 h. The results of this study show that core temperatures increase...
Occupation and environmental heat-associated deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: a case-control study
Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death...
The co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in the prevalence of hypertension
The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure. Biological interaction of two variables on hypertension was calculated using the synergistic index. The results indicate that exposure to noise or a mixture of organic solvents may be associated with the prevalence of hypertension in car manufacturing company workers and co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in this regard. Therefore appropriate preventive programs in these workers recommended. Source : Mirsaeed Attarchi et al. Combined effects of exposure...
Acute Cardiovascular Effects of Firefighting and Active Cooling During Rehabilitation
Objectives : To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and postexposure active cooling. Methods : Forty-four firefighters were evaluated before and after a 12-minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters performing the same drill were randomized to undergo postfire forearm immersion in 10[degrees]C water or standard rehabilitation. Results: In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin, or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase...
Radiation Sources in Natural Gas Well Activities
More attention and monitoring of occupational radiation exposure in the natural gas industry are warranted . The boom in the natural gas industry across the nation, made possible by recent advances in hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") methodology, has resulted in increased concern for public and environmental safety. This, in turn, has resulted in a series of recommendations for minimizing the risk to the public and the environment (Secretary of Energy, 2011). The natural gas industry has responded to environmental concerns by cleaning and recycling frack water, which can take the form...
Review of Health Risks for workers in the Waste and Recycling Industry
This study was commissioned by the British Occupational Health Research Foundation on the behalf of the Environmental Services Association Education Trust (ESAET). In recent years the waste and recycling industry has moved away from its reliance on disposal in landfill to much higher levels of recycling and recovery. In addition, new materials and technologies are entering the waste chain. These changes are likely to have led to significant changes in the nature and magnitude of the associated risks to worker health. Source : http://www.bohrf.org.uk/downloads/Review_of_Health_Risks_for_workers_in_the_Waste_and_Recycling_Industry...
Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion
Objective : We investigated self-reported occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, antiviral drugs, sterilizing agents (disinfectants), and X-rays and the risk of spontaneous abortion in US nurses. Study Design : Pregnancy outcome and occupational exposures were collected retrospectively from 8461 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II. Of these, 7482 were eligible for analysis using logistic regression. Results : Participants reported 6707 live births, and 775 (10%) spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks). After adjusting for age, parity, shift work, and hours worked...

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