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Evaluation of the Impact of Ambient Temperatures on Occupational Injuries in Spain
Background: Extreme cold and heat have been linked to an increased risk of occupational injuries. However, the evidence is still limited to a small number of studies of people with relatively few injuries and with a limited geographic extent, and the corresponding economic effect has not been studied in detail. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between ambient temperatures and occupational injuries in Spain along with its economic effect. Methods: The daily number of occupational injuries that caused at least one day of leave and the daily maximum temperature were obtained for each Spanish...
Expositions professionnelles à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires chez les salariés en 2010
Introduction – Les cancers respiratoires sont les plus fréquents des cancers professionnels, mais très peu de données sont disponibles pour quantifier l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes respiratoires. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer en France la proportion de salariés exposés à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires et d'identifier les groupes professionnels les plus exposés, à des fins de prévention. Méthode – À partir des données...
Work history and radioprotection practices in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in US radiologic technologists performing nuclear medicine procedures
Introduction: Technologists working in nuclear medicine (NM) are exposed to higher radiation doses than most other occupationally exposed populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of cancer in NM technologists in relation to work history, procedures performed and radioprotection practices. Methods: From the US Radiologic Technologists cohort study, 72 755 radiologic technologists who completed a 2003–2005 questionnaire were followed for cancer mortality through 31 December 2012 and for cancer incidence through completion of a questionnaire in 2012–2013. Multivariable...
Expositions aux champs électromagnétiques
Repères en santé au travail Omniprésents dans l'environnement quotidien et en milieu de travail, les champs électromagnétiques (CEM) suscitent des interrogations et parfois des inquiétudes quant aux risques qu'ils peuvent faire encourir aux personnes. Si les effets biophysiques avérés sur l'homme sont bien connus, il reste parfois difficile pour un non spécialiste de faire la part des choses entre les effets tels qu'ils peuvent être rapportés par les travailleurs et leur relation avec la présence...
Investigation d'une suspicion d'un excès de cas de cancer dans un laboratoire de recherche
Une suspicion d'agrégat de cancers chez des personnels d'un laboratoire de recherche a été investiguée par Santé publique France et sa cellule d'intervention en région Rhône-Alpes (Cire), en lien avec les services de médecine de prévention concernés. Pour les neuf cas signalés, l'investigation a porté sur i) l'identification des cas, ii) la reconstitution des parcours et expositions professionnels au sein du laboratoire, iii) une recherche bibliographique des caractéristiques épidémiologiques...
Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking Water Pipe Repairs
Cured-in-place-pipe (CIPP) is the most popular water pipe repair method used in the U.S. for sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and is increasingly being used for drinking water pipe repairs. Today, approximately 50% of all damaged pipes are being repaired using CIPP technology. The CIPP procedure involves the chemical manufacture of a new plastic pipe called a CIPP inside a damaged water pipe. Little is known about CIPP worker exposures and health risks. CIPP manufacturing sites are highly transient, with a single installation location being used from a few hours to a few days. Unlike traditional manufacturing...
Intervention to diminish dehydration and kidney damage
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the potential to reduce kidney function damage during the implementation of a water, rest, shade (WRS) and efficiency intervention program among sugarcane workers. Methods: A WRS intervention program adapted from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) coupled with an efficiency program began two months into the 5-month harvest. One of the two groups of workers studied was provided with portable water reservoirs, mobile shaded tents, and scheduled rest periods. Health data (anthropometric and questionnaires), blood, and urine were...
Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk
Background: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO. Methods: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated. Results: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the...
Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease
An update of a Danish cohort study among utility workers Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period of follow-up. Methods: We investigated the risks for dementia, motor neurone disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy among 32,006 men employed at the 99 utility companies that supplied Denmark with electricity during the period...
Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters
Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis...
Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposures
A systematic literature review and meta-analyses Objectives: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies fulfilling good scientific epidemiological standards for use in meta-analyses of relevant risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Methods: Our search identified 103 original publications on associations between work and Parkinson's disease. GRADE guidelines were used to ensure high scientific quality, and reliable guidelines were applied to classify the papers. Of the 103 articles, 47 fulfilled good scientific standards while 56 were methodologically deficient and thus...
The risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding
Objectives: There are indications that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases the risk of cataract, but there is only circumstantial evidence that metal welding, an important occupational source of UVR exposure, is a risk factor. The objective of this study is to unravel if metal welding increases the risk of cataract. Method: We compared the risk of being diagnosed with cataract from 1987–2012 in a historic cohort of 4288 male metal arc welders against a reference group comprised of Danish skilled and unskilled male workers with similar age distribution. For the welders' cohort...
Ototoxic chemicals
Chemicals that result in hearing loss It is well documented that occupational noise exposure is a significant health hazard that leads to permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and we have the National Exposure Standard for Occupational Noise to deal with this. It is less well known that a substantial number of medications and common industrial chemicals can also cause hearing loss themselves or exacerbate the effects of noise. These chemicals are said to be ototoxic (oto = ear, toxic = poisonous). They may damage the cochlea in the inner ear and/or the auditory neurological pathways leading...
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. Methods: We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. Results: The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9?V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P?<?0.05). The prevalence of menstrual disorder was 12.0% in the unexposed group, but was 26.8% and 33...
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments
Occupational exposure to heat can result in injuries, disease, reduced productivity, and death. To address this hazard, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has evaluated the scientific data on heat stress and hot environments and has updated the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments. This document was last updated in 1986, and in recent years, including during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response of 2010, questions were raised regarding the need for revision to reflect recent research and findings. This revision includes...
Exposure to MRI-related magnetic fields and vertigo in MRI workers
Objectives: Vertigo has been reported by people working around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and was found to increase with increasing strength of scanner magnets. This suggests an association with exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and/or motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF). This study assessed the association between various metrics of shift-long exposure to SMF and TVMF and self-reported vertigo among MRI workers. Methods: We analysed 358 shifts from 234 employees at 14 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. Participants used logbooks to report vertigo experienced...
Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology
Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking...
Electrocardiographic Responses During Fire Suppression and Recovery Among Experienced Firefighters
Objective: We sought to evaluate the impact of high-intensity exertion and heat stress on electrocardiographic changes during fire suppression and recovery. Methods: Healthy firefighters completed a live-fire training evolution. Each firefighter was randomly assigned to complete either two or three intervals of fire suppression tasks followed by a structured recovery. Firefighters were continuously monitored using 12-lead Holter electrocardiogram. Results: Most firefighters (71.4%) exceeded their maximum heart rate and one third had pathological ST events. Nearly one third of each of these abnormalities...
The Breast Cancer Fund: Working Women and Breast Cancer
The State of the Evidence Based on the current evidence, action to reduce workplace exposures linked to breast cancer is imperative. The Breast Cancer Fund has spent nearly 15 years translating the science that links environmental exposures to breast cancer, and advocating for change. In the past several years, it has become increasingly evident that the workplace may be a substantive source of many of these exposures and of the resulting risk for breast cancer. Source: http://www.etui.org/fr/content/download/21116/176339/file/working-women-and-breast-cancer-1.pdf
Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers
An international cohort study Background: There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted lowdose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the...
Radiofréquences et santé
Avec le développement et le déploiement des nouvelles technologies sans fil depuis une vingtaine d'années, un nombre croissant de systèmes de communication et d'interconnexions entre objets utilisent les ondes électromagnétiques dans le domaine des radiofréquences. Ainsi, il existe de nombreuses sources de radiofréquences dans notre environnement quotidien (téléphone mobile, antennes relais, Wi-Fi, etc.). Parmi celles-ci, le téléphone mobile est de loin la principale source d'exposition. Concernant la...
Bruit et substances ototoxiques : cocktail à risque pour l’audition
De nombreuses études ont mis en évidence un risque accru de troubles auditifs du fait de phénomènes de synergies entre certains agents chimiques et le bruit. Quelles sont les substances concernées ? Comment fonctionnent ces co-expositions? Quels sont les effets sur l'homme ? Cet article apporte un éclairage sur ces questions. Source: http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_DC%208/$File/DC8.pdf
Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)
The results of current scientific research show that there are no evident adverse health effects if exposure remains below the levels recommended by the EU legislation. Overall, the epidemiological studies on radiofrequency EMF exposure do not show an increased risk of brain tumours. Furthermore, they do not indicate an increased risk for other cancers of the head and neck region. Previous studies also suggested an association of EMF with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. New studies on that subject did not confirm this link. Epidemiological studies associate exposure to Extremely Low...
Characterizing occupational heat-related mortality in the United States, 2000–2010
An analysis using the census of fatal occupational injuries database BACKGROUND: Occupational heat-related mortality is not well studied and risk factors remain largely unknown. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the US 2000-2010. METHODS: Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry. RESULTS: Between 2000...
Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants
Background: Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods: Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results: Of 2654 women interviewed...
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