Parcourir par tags

Tous les tags » Agents physiques » Chaleur (RSS)
Travailler dans une ambiance thermique chaude
Nombre de salariés peuvent travailler dans une ambiance thermique chaude, à l'extérieur ou à leur poste de travail, liée directement à leur activité professionnelle ou au climat, lors d'une canicule par exemple. Ils sont ainsi exposés à des risques pour la santé parfois graves et à des accidents de travail. Ce dossier rappelle les effets physiologiques de la chaleur sur le corps humain et les risques pour la santé. Sont ensuite présentés les différents paramètres des échanges...
Evaluation of the Impact of Ambient Temperatures on Occupational Injuries in Spain
Background: Extreme cold and heat have been linked to an increased risk of occupational injuries. However, the evidence is still limited to a small number of studies of people with relatively few injuries and with a limited geographic extent, and the corresponding economic effect has not been studied in detail. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between ambient temperatures and occupational injuries in Spain along with its economic effect. Methods: The daily number of occupational injuries that caused at least one day of leave and the daily maximum temperature were obtained for each Spanish...
Z1010-18 - Management of work in extreme conditions
The purpose of this Standard is to address the application of occupational health and safety management systems to plans for work performed under heightened-risk conditions presented by extreme environmental temperatures, severe weather, low or high atmospheric pressure, and poor air quality (causing impairment of breathing or visibility). CSA Z1010 is the latest addition to the Z1000 series of OHS management systems standards. It is designed to be used within an OHS management system in conjunction with the other standards in the Z1000 series. Source: http://shop.csa.ca/en/canada/occupational...
Intervention to diminish dehydration and kidney damage
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the potential to reduce kidney function damage during the implementation of a water, rest, shade (WRS) and efficiency intervention program among sugarcane workers. Methods: A WRS intervention program adapted from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) coupled with an efficiency program began two months into the 5-month harvest. One of the two groups of workers studied was provided with portable water reservoirs, mobile shaded tents, and scheduled rest periods. Health data (anthropometric and questionnaires), blood, and urine were...
Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters
Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis...
Association between high ambient temperature and acute work-related injury
A case-crossover analysis using workers' compensation claims data This study found that high ambient temperatures are associated with increased risk of serious acute work-related injury for some worker subgroups. It expanded on previous research by assessing associations with both daily minimum and maximum temperatures, by using a novel approach to occupational characteristics classification, and by using a case-crossover study design. Study findings provide evidence to inform prevention strategies. Source: McInnes JA, Akram M, MacFarlane EM, Keegel T, Sim MR, Smith P. (2016). Scand J Work...
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments
Occupational exposure to heat can result in injuries, disease, reduced productivity, and death. To address this hazard, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has evaluated the scientific data on heat stress and hot environments and has updated the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments. This document was last updated in 1986, and in recent years, including during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response of 2010, questions were raised regarding the need for revision to reflect recent research and findings. This revision includes...
Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology
Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking...
Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation
A study in a Mediterranean climate Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion...
Ambiances thermiques
Quand le travail quitte sa zone de confort Que ce soit à l'extérieur ou à l'intérieur des locaux, la température du lieu de travail influe sur le confort des opérateurs. Si elle est particulièrement élevée ou basse, ce sont la santé et la sécurité de chacun qui peuvent être mises en jeu. La maîtrise des ambiances thermiques et de l'organisation à mettre en place joue alors un rôle essentiel dans la prévention des risques professionnels. Source: Travail & Sécurité...
Electrocardiographic Responses During Fire Suppression and Recovery Among Experienced Firefighters
Objective: We sought to evaluate the impact of high-intensity exertion and heat stress on electrocardiographic changes during fire suppression and recovery. Methods: Healthy firefighters completed a live-fire training evolution. Each firefighter was randomly assigned to complete either two or three intervals of fire suppression tasks followed by a structured recovery. Firefighters were continuously monitored using 12-lead Holter electrocardiogram. Results: Most firefighters (71.4%) exceeded their maximum heart rate and one third had pathological ST events. Nearly one third of each of these abnormalities...
Individualized prediction of heat stress in firefighters
A data-driven approach using classification and regression trees The purpose of this study was to explore data driven models, based on decision trees, to develop practical and easy to use predictive models for early identification of firefighters who are likely to cross the threshold of hyperthermia during live-fire training. Predictive models were created for three consecutive live-fire training scenarios. The final predicted outcome was a categorical variable: will a firefighter cross the upper threshold of hyperthermia - Yes/No. Two tiers of models were built, one with and one without taking...
Extreme heat and occupational heat illnesses in South Australia, 2001–2010
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the epidemiological characteristics of occupational heat illnesses in South Australia, to quantify the association between ambient temperature and occupational heat illnesses, and to investigate the impact of heatwaves on occupational heat illnesses. METHODS: Workers' compensation claims data and weather data were obtained from SafeWork South Australia and the Bureau of Meteorology, respectively, for 2001-2010. Time series analysis with generalised estimation equation models and linear spline functions was used to quantify the temperature-heat illness...
Risk analysis and warning rate of hot environment for foundry industry using hybrid MCDM technique
A person working in extreme hot environment is at greater risk of heat-related disorders and safety problems. Protection of health and safety needs to evaluate the risk and warning rate of hot environment without compromising productivity of the organization. In this paper, a novel hybrid technique was proposed for assessing the work safety in hot environments using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) technique. The proposed model involves analytic network process (ANP) and linguistic fuzzy approach. The ANP approach is used to compute the weights of evaluation factors and triangular fuzzy numbers...
Characterizing occupational heat-related mortality in the United States, 2000–2010
An analysis using the census of fatal occupational injuries database BACKGROUND: Occupational heat-related mortality is not well studied and risk factors remain largely unknown. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the US 2000-2010. METHODS: Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry. RESULTS: Between 2000...
Heat Illness and Death Among Workers
United States, 2012–2013 Exposure to heat and hot environments puts workers at risk for heat stress, which can result in heat illnesses and death. This report describes findings from a review of 2012?2013 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) federal enforcement cases (i.e., inspections) resulting in citations under paragraph 5(a)(1), the "general duty clause" of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. That clause requires that each employer "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that...
Excessive occupational heat exposure
A significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers Occupational heat exposure threatens the health of a worker not only when heat illness occurs but also when a worker's performance and work capacity is impaired. Occupational contexts that involve hot and humid climatic conditions, heavy physical workloads and/or protective clothing create a strenuous and potentially dangerous thermal load for a worker. There are recognized heat prevention strategies and international thermal ergonomic standards to protect the worker. However, such standards have been developed...
Adjusting to Work in the Heat
Why Acclimatization Matters Acclimatization is important in keeping your workforce safe and well as temperatures rise. This natural adaptation to the heat takes time, and from a management perspective, it may require careful planning. Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2014/07/14/acclimatization/
The usefulness of compensation statistics to detect heat-related health outcomes in a temperate climate
The experience of Québec OBJECTIVES: To explore relationships between summer outdoor temperatures in Quebec (Canada) and occupational compensation statistics for heat-related illnesses. METHOD: Daily compensation counts of heat-related illnesses (heat strain, heatstroke, loss of consciousness, etc.), occurring between May and September, were obtained from the workers' compensation board of Quebec for each health region between 1998 and 2010. Regional daily maximum outdoor temperatures were obtained from Environment Canada. Associations between daily compensation counts and temperature...
Pertinence et conditions d'utilisation des indices thermiques dans le contexte québécois
Cette étude s’intéresse à l’ensemble des contraintes thermiques, depuis les grands froids typiques du nord du Québec, jusqu’aux ambiances excessivement chaudes retrouvées dans certaines industries. Six indices thermiques ont été analysés en détail; trois d’entre eux s’appliquent au froid, un au confort thermique et deux visent les conditions excessivement chaudes. Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-indices-thermiques-contexte-quebecois-r-824.html
The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia
This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker?s health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers? compensation claims data for 2001-2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims...
The use of Bayesian inference to inform the surveillance of temperature-related occupational morbidity in Ontario, Canada, 2004-2010
PURPOSE: To assess the associations of occupational heat and cold-related illnesses presenting in emergency departments in south western Ontario, Canada, with daily meteorological conditions using Bayesian inference. METHODOLOGY: Meteorological and air pollution data for the south western economic region of Ontario were gathered from Environment Canada and the Ministry of Environment. Daily heat and cold-related emergency department visits clinically attributed to work from 2004 to 2010 were tabulated. A novel application of Bayesian inference on a flexible Poisson time series model was undertaken...
Heat Strain and Hydration Status of Surface Mine Blast Crew Workers
Objective: Dehydration and symptoms of heat illness are common among the surface mining workforce. This investigation aimed to determine whether heat strain and hydration status exceeded recommended limits. Methods: Fifteen blast crew personnel operating in the tropics were monitored across a 12-hour shift. Heart rate, core body temperature, and urine-specific gravity were continuously recorded. Participants self-reported fluid consumption and completed a heat illness symptom inventory. Results: Core body temperature averaged 37.46 ± 0.13°C, with the group maximum 37.98 ± 0.19°C...
Occupational Heat Strain in a Hot Underground Metal Mine
Objective: In a hot underground metal mine, this study evaluated the relationship between job task, physical body type, work shift, and heat strain. Methods: Thirty-one miners were evaluated during 98 shifts while performing deep shaft-sinking tasks. Continuous core body temperature, heart rate, pre- and postshift urine specific gravity (USG), and body mass index were measured. Results: Cutting and welding tasks were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) increased core body temperature, maximum heart rate, and increased postshift urine specific gravity. Miners in the obese level II and III...
Factors Associated With Heat Strain Among Workers at an Aluminum Smelter in Texas
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of heat strain and factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas. Methods: Continuous core body temperature (Tc), heart rate, and pre- and postshift serum electrolytes, and urine specific gravity were measured, and symptom questionnaires were administered. Results: Most participants (54%) had 1 or more signs of heat strain. Unacclimatized participants were significantly more likely to exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists–recommended Tc than acclimatized participants (88% vs 20%; P <...
Plus de Messages Page suivante »

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives