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Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk
Background: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO. Methods: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated. Results: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the...
Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease
An update of a Danish cohort study among utility workers Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period of follow-up. Methods: We investigated the risks for dementia, motor neurone disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy among 32,006 men employed at the 99 utility companies that supplied Denmark with electricity during the period...
Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposures
A systematic literature review and meta-analyses Objectives: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies fulfilling good scientific epidemiological standards for use in meta-analyses of relevant risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Methods: Our search identified 103 original publications on associations between work and Parkinson's disease. GRADE guidelines were used to ensure high scientific quality, and reliable guidelines were applied to classify the papers. Of the 103 articles, 47 fulfilled good scientific standards while 56 were methodologically deficient and thus...
Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers
Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure in a Vulnerable Population Objectives: We compared olfactory function in pesticide-exposed Latino farmworkers and nonfarmworkers to explore its use as a subclinical indicator of neurological pesticide effects. Methods: We recruited 304 current farmworkers and 247 nonfarmworkers. All completed odor identification (14 odors) and threshold tests (16 concentrations of n-butanol) using a well-established methodology. Results: Farmworkers reported significantly greater lifetime pesticide exposure. Performance on both olfactory tests declined with...
A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies of the Association Between Chronic Occupational Exposure to Lead and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Objective: The association between occupational exposure to lead and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was examined through systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant epidemiological studies and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Methods: Relevant studies were searched in multiple bibliographic databases through September 2013; additional articles were tracked through PubMed until submission. All records were screened in DistillerSR, and the data extracted from included articles were synthesized with meta-analysis. Results: The risk of developing ALS among individuals with a history...
Neurological outcomes associated with low-level manganese exposure in an inception cohort of asymptomatic welding trainees
Objective: Long-term, high-level exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with impaired central nervous system (CNS) function. We quantitatively explored relations between low-level Mn exposure and selected neurological outcomes in a longitudinal inception cohort of asymptomatic welder trainees. Methods: Welders with no previous occupational Mn exposure were observed approximately every three months over the course of the five-quarter traineeship. Fifty-six welders were assessed for motor function using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) and Grooved Pegboard...
Time may not fully attenuate solvent-associated cognitive deficits in highly exposed workers
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of lifetime occupational solvent exposure, as measured by dose and timing, on performance on multiple cognitive tests among retired French utility workers. METHODS: A total of 2,143 retirees in the GAZEL cohort underwent cognitive testing in 2010. Lifetime exposure to chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, and benzene was assessed using a job exposure matrix. We modeled effects of lifetime solvent dose, timing of last exposure, and a combination of these metrics on risk for cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants were exposed to chlorinated...
Cognitive Disorders and Tau-Protein Expression Among Retired Aluminum Smelting Workers
Objectives: To analyze cognitive functions and tau-protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of retired aluminum (Al)-exposed workers. Methods: A total of 66 retired Al potroom workers and 70 unexposed controls were investigated. The cognitive functions were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The tau-protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocyte was analyzed with Western blot. Results: The cognitive functions of the exposed group were significantly decreased. Twelve mild cognitive impairment cases in the exposed group and four mild cognitive impairment cases in the control...
De nouveaux éclairages sur les pesticides
Une expertise collective de l'Inserm apporte de nouveaux éclairages sur les risques liés aux produits pesticides. L'analyse de la littérature scientifique internationale met en évidence des liens entre l'exposition professionnelle aux pesticides et la survenue de certaines pathologies chez l'adulte : maladie de Parkinson, cancer de la prostate, lymphomes, myélomes. L'étude montre également que les expositions intervenant au cours de la grossesse peuvent perturber le développement de l'enfant à naître. Source...
Cognitive function among sons of women who worked in dentistry
Objective Exposure to elemental mercury vapor can impair neurological function as it is neurotoxic in doses higher than usually found in dentistry. Little is known about the potential effects of fetal exposure to elemental mercury among offspring of female dental workers. We investigated cognitive function among offspring of women working in dentistry at the time of their pregnancy. Methods We compared results for cognitive function examinations taken by the majority of young men in Sweden at the time of compulsory military enlistment (age 17–18 years). Sons of female dentists (N=365) and...
Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators
A meta-analytic study Chronic low level exposure of agricultural workers and applicators to pesticides has been found to be associated with different degrees of decrement in cognitive and psychomotor functions. The goal of this study was to use meta-analysis to (1) identify and quantify neurobehavioral deficits among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators, and (2) analyse the potential confounders or moderators of these neurobehavioral deficits. Seventeen studies, reporting on 21 independent cohort groups, were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved 16 neuropsychological...
Parkinson’s Disease: Workplace Risk Factors
Parkinson's disease is thought to be the second most common neurological disease (after Alzheimer's), affecting an estimated 34,000 to 60,000 Canadians and 4,500 to 8,000 British Columbians. Previous studies have examined associations between Parkinson's disease and genetic factors, environmental exposures (e.g. pesticides, heavy metals, solvents), and major head trauma. In an earlier study, the research team explored the distribution of Parkinson's disease within occupational groups. That work lead to the development of ideas about potential relationships between the disease and...
Polyneuropathy or encephalopathy caused by organic solvents, in isolation or in mixtures
The second edition of the Occupational Diseases Report 1317 enables quality-assured processing in cases with a suspicion of work-induced damage to the nervous system by organic solvents on the basis of technical and medical expert knowledge. In the first part, there is technical information with specific information on solvents and mixtures whose neuro-toxicity has been proved according to the current level of knowledge. The Report contains overviews on the incidence of the substances in various industries as well as substance dossiers with chemical and physical data, limit values and absorption...
Exposition aux pesticides et maladie de Parkinson : le lien confirmé
Une équipe de chercheurs de l’unité Inserm « Neuroépidémiologie » et de l’UPMC montre que l’exposition aux pesticides double quasiment le risque de survenue de la maladie de Parkinson parmi les agriculteurs. Ce risque augmente avec le nombre d’années d’exposition et, chez les hommes, est principalement lié à l’usage d’insecticides, notamment de type organochloré. Ces résultats, qui posent également la question du rôle d’une contamination résiduelle de la...

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