2019-08-01 12:00 - Messages

ISO 22065 - Air des lieux de travail - Gaz et vapeurs - Exigences pour l'évaluation des procédures de mesure à l'aide de dispositifs de prélèvement par pompage

Le présent document spécifie les exigences de performances et les méthodes d'essai, dans des conditions de laboratoires spécifiées, pour l'évaluation des dispositifs de prélèvement par pompage employés conjointement avec une pompe de prélèvement d'air, ainsi que pour l'évaluation des procédures utilisant ces dispositifs de prélèvement pour la détermination des gaz et des vapeurs dans les atmosphères des lieux de travail.
Le présent document traite des exigences à destination des développeurs de méthodes et/ou des fabricants.

Source: https://www.iso.org/fr/standard/72487.html

The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases

An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement
Rationale: Workplace inhalational hazards remain common worldwide, even though they are ameliorable. Previous American Thoracic Society documents have assessed the contribution of workplace exposures to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on a population level, but not to other chronic respiratory diseases. The goal of this document is to report an in-depth literature review and data synthesis of the occupational contribution to the burden of the major nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including airway diseases; interstitial fibrosis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; other noninfectious granulomatous lung diseases, including sarcoidosis; and selected respiratory infections.
Methods: Relevant literature was identified for each respiratory condition. The occupational population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for those conditions for which there were sufficient population-based studies to allow pooled estimates. For the other conditions, the occupational burden of disease was estimated on the basis of attribution in case series, incidence rate ratios, or attributable fraction within an exposed group.
Results: Workplace exposures contribute substantially to the burden of multiple chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma (PAF, 16%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PAF, 14%); chronic bronchitis (PAF, 13%); idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (PAF, 26%); hypersensitivity pneumonitis (occupational burden, 19%); other granulomatous diseases, including sarcoidosis (occupational burden, 30%); pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (occupational burden, 29%); tuberculosis (occupational burden, 2.3% in silica-exposed workers and 1% in healthcare workers); and community-acquired pneumonia in working-age adults (PAF, 10%).
Conclusions: Workplace exposures contribute to the burden of disease across a range of nonmalignant lung conditions in adults (in addition to the 100% burden for the classic occupational pneumoconioses). This burden has important clinical, research, and policy implications. There is a pressing need to improve clinical recognition and public health awareness of the contribution of occupational factors across a range of nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

Source: Blanc, P. D., Annesi-Maesano, I., Balmes, J. R., Cummings, K. J., Fishwick, D., Miedinger, D., ... et Torén, K. (2019). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Médicine, 199(11), 1312-1334.

ASTM E2625 - Standard Practice for Controlling Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica for Construction and Demolition Activities

These practices and criteria were developed for occupational exposures during construction and demolition activities. They are intended to (1) protect against clinically significant disease from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, (2) be measurable by techniques that are valid, reproducible, and readily available, and (3) be attainable with existing technology and protective practices.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2625.htm

Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure among Outdoor Workers in Three Canadian Provinces

Introduction: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure places outdoor workers at risk of skin cancer and exposure is difficult to control. In response, the Sun Safety at Work Canada (SSAWC) project was undertaken (2014–2016). The purpose of this substudy was to characterize the UVR exposure levels of outdoor workers in the SSAWC project.
Methods: Thirteen workplaces in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, and Nova Scotia participated in an exposure monitoring campaign (late summer/early fall 2016). Study participants were workers from power utilities and municipalities. Participants wore a UVR measurement badge (light-sensitive polysulfone plastic) on their wrist, shoulder, or hardhat. Badge calibration and absorbance measurements were performed in the AusSun Research Lab. Personal UVR doses are presented as standard erythemal doses (SED) and compared with the internationally recommended exposure limit (1.3 SED), as well as to the total available UVR by date. Generalized linear models were used to examine determinants of solar UVR for personal UVR dose (for both SED and percent of ambient UVR). Models considered badge placement, date, province, industry, main job task, and the hours spent outdoors.
Results: Mean personal UVR dose of participating workers was 6.1 SED (nearly 5× the recommended limit). Just 14% of workers experienced ‘acceptable' levels of solar radiation; 10% were exposed at >10 times the limit. In univariate analyses, workers in Ontario had the highest levels (mean 7.3 SED), but even in the lowest exposed province (British Columbia), the mean personal UVR dose was 4.5 SED. Utility workers had double the exposure of municipal workers (10.4 and 5.5 SED, respectively). In the determinants of exposure models, the differences by province were muted, but utility line workers and those in general maintenance had higher predicted exposures. Those who wore their badge on their hardhat also had higher values of SED in the fully adjusted determinants models.
Conclusions: Solar ultraviolet overexposure among outdoor workers is a concern, even in a country like Canada with relatively low ambient UVR. Implementation of sun safety programs should be supported in an effort to reduce exposure in this vulnerable group of workers.

Source: Peters, C. E., Pasko, E., Strahlendorf, P., Holness, D. L. et Tenkate, T. (2019). Annals of work exposures and health, 63(6), 679-688.

Le captage des poussières

Dans de nombreux secteurs, l'activité professionnelle est source d'expositions à des poussières dont les effets sur la santé peuvent être variés selon le type de poussières et d'exposition : irritation respiratoire, allergie, fibrose pulmonaire, cancer… La ventilation et l'aspiration à la source sont les piliers d'une prévention efficace.

Source: (2019). Travail & Sécurité (807).

Heme oxygenase 1 polymorphism, occupational vapor, gas, dust, and fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Danish population-based study

Objectives: The number of dinucleotide repeats (GT)n modulate expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a stress response gene. Multiple repeats might affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. We aimed to investigate the association of this polymorphism with COPD and its interaction with occupational exposures (vapor, gas, dust, or fumes).
Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4703 Danes, aged 45–84 years. HMOX1 (GT)n was genotyped and grouped as short: ≤26, medium: 27–32 and long: ≥33 alleles. COPD was defined by the lower limit of normal (2.5th FEV1/FVC and FEV1 centiles). Occupational exposure was defined as ever exposed to vapor, gas, dust, or fume in expert-selected jobs. Associations were analyzed by adjusted mixed logistic regression.
Results: The population included 6% with COPD, 48% who had smoked ≥10 pack-years, and 46% with occupational exposure. HMOX1 was genotyped in 4423 participants. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the association between HMOX1 long allele and COPD was 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18–2.60]. An interaction was evident between HMOX1 long allele and occupational exposure, OR 2.38 (95% CI 1.04–5.46), versus HMOX1 short/medium without exposure. Analyses were replicated in another cohort, aged 20–44 years, N=1168, including 3% with COPD, 25% who had smoked ≥10 pack-years and 20% with occupational exposure. No associations were seen between COPD and HMOX1 long allele here.
Conclusions: Long alleles in HMOX1 alone and in interaction with occupational exposure seem to be associated with COPD. Failure to replicate data may be due to premature age for COPD development and low occupational exposure prevalence. We propose this long allele may be a genetic contributor to the COPD pathogenesis.

Source: Würtz ET, Brasch-Andersen C, Steffensen R, Hansen JG, Malling TH, Schlünssen V, et Omland Ø. (2019). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Protocole de mise au point des méthodes de prélèvement surfacique et d’analyse des substances chimiques sur les surfaces de travail

Ce guide décrit un protocole pour la mise au point et la validation des méthodes de prélèvement et d'analyse des substances chimiques présentes sur les surfaces de travail. Ce protocole peut être appliqué par tout laboratoire souhaitant mettre au point ses propres méthodes. Il est conforme aux exigences normatives et aux pratiques courantes sur le sujet.
Ce protocole répond à plusieurs objectifs :
 - permettre à tout laboratoire d’effectuer lui-même la mise au point d’une méthode, dans le respect des procédures normalisées, selon des critères communs, bien définis et validés ;
 - informer les utilisateurs des méthodes MétroPol des conditions dans lesquelles elles ont été mises au point, à charge pour eux de la valider dans les conditions réelles de mesurage ;
 - donner au préventeur les éléments lui permettant d'élaborer sa stratégie expérimentale, en fonction des paramètres d'exposition ;
 - assurer la validation des méthodes publiées dans le recueil MétroPol pour qu’elles soient mieux exportables et choisies comme méthodes de référence.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/PDF/metropol-analyse-validation-surfaces/metropol-analyse-validation-surfaces.pdf

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