2019-07-01 12:00 - Messages

ASTM E3193 - Standard Test Method for Measurement of Lead (Pb) in Dust by Wipe, Paint, and Soil by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS)

This test method covers the determination of lead (Pb) in dust by wipe, paint, and soil collected in and around buildings and related structures by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) and is derived from Test Methods D4185 and E1613.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3193.htm

ASTM E3214 - Standard Classification for Industrial Microorganisms

The technology to engineer industrial microorganisms (IMs) is evolving rapidly and the public, regulatory bodies, and industrial sectors require new tools to help evaluate the products of biotechnology. In particular, there is a need to clarify the nature and intent of genetic alterations present in many industrial microbial strains.
Currently, there is no systematic classification system to help differentiate among the many subtypes of engineered industrial microorganisms. In response, a classification system for industrial microorganisms has been developed with the intent of facilitating the commercial use and development of industrial microorganisms and the biotechnology sector in general.
This classification will be applied to all microorganisms for which there is an intended use, broadly referred to as “industrial microorganisms.” This classification covers both viable and non-viable microorganisms, in addition to any product that contains microbial DNA.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3214.htm

ASTM D6480 - Standard Test Method for Wipe Sampling of Surfaces, Indirect Preparation, and Analysis for Asbestos Structure Number Surface Loading by Transmission Electron Microscopy

This test method covers a procedure to identify asbestos in samples wiped from surfaces and to provide an estimate of the concentration of asbestos reported as the number of asbestos structures per unit area of sampled surface. The procedure outlined in this test method employs an indirect sample preparation technique. It is intended to disperse aggregated asbestos into fundamental fibrils, fiber bundles, clusters, or matrices. However, as with all indirect sample preparation techniques, the asbestos observed for quantification may not represent the physical form of the asbestos as sampled. More specifically, the procedure described neither creates nor destroys asbestos, but it may alter the physical form of the mineral fiber aggregates.
This test method describes the equipment and procedures necessary for wipe sampling of surfaces for levels of asbestos structures. The sample is collected onto a particle-free wipe material (wipe) from the surface of a sampling area that may contain asbestos.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6480.htm

NF ISO 4037- Radioprotection - Rayonnements X et gamma de référence pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des débitmètres

Le présent document donne des indications concernant les aspects complémentaires de la caractérisation des rayonnements de photons de faible énergie et les procédures pour l'étalonnage et la détermination de la réponse des dosimètres ou débitmètres de zone et individuels en fonction de l'énergie des photons et de l'angle d'incidence. Le présent document traite de la détermination précise des coefficients de conversion du kerma dans l'air en équivalents de dose H p (10) , H* (10) , H p (3) et H' (3) et pour les spectres de rayonnement de photons de faible énergie. Une méthode d'étalonnage direct de ces grandeurs au moyen d'instruments de référence appropriés est donnée comme alternative à l'utilisation des coefficients de conversion.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-iso-4037-4/radioprotection-rayonnements-x-et-gamma-de-reference-pour-l-etalonnage-des-dosimetres-et-des-debitmetres-et-pour-la-determinatio/article/904954/fa190942

SysDEA: Systematic analysis of dermal exposure to hazardous chemical agents at the workplace

The overall objective of the SysDEA study is to generate scientific knowledge for improvement and standardization of measurement methods for dermal exposure to chemicals at the workplace. To this end, five different tasks (transfer, spreading, spraying, handling immersed objects, and handling contaminated objects) were performed with three different product types: a dusty powder (solids) and high viscosity (HV) and low viscosity (LV) liquids. The investigated exposure situations (product-task combinations) were: dumping powder, pouring LV and HV (transfer), rolling LV and HV (spreading), surface spraying LV and HV (spraying), manually handling objects immersed in LV and HV (immersion/dipping) and handling objects contaminated with powder. The measurement methods investigated were: whole body dosimeter (coverall) versus patches for body exposure, gloves versus hand wash for hand exposure, and head bands versus head wipes for head exposure. In addition, a fluorescence method was used for all body parts. Each of these exposure situations was performed four times by four different test subjects each for all of the three different measurement methods (including body, hand and head exposure). In total 320 individual experiments were performed.

Source: https://www.baua.de/EN/Service/Publications/Report/F2349.html

The NIOSH Occupational Exposure Banding Process for Chemical Risk Management

Occupational exposure banding, also known as hazard banding or health hazard banding, is a systematic process that uses qualitative and quantitative hazard information on selected health-effect endpoints to identify potential exposure ranges or categories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) occupational exposure banding process seeks to create a consistent and documented process with a decision logic to characterize chemical hazards so that timely, well-informed risk management decisions can be made for chemical substances that lack OELs. Users can band a chemical manually or by using the occupational exposure banding e-Tool. Overall, this document provides the background, rationale, and instructions for the occupational exposure banding process and gives guidance for risk managers to identify control levels for chemicals without authoritative OELs.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2019-132/default.html

Évaluation de l'exposition aux produits chimiques par les prélèvements surfaciques

De nombreuses activités professionnelles génèrent des dépôts sur les surfaces et les objets. Cette pollution surfacique peut alors conduire à une contamination des travailleurs par passage percutané et par ingestion. Une étude a été conduite dans le but de proposer une méthodologie d'évaluation des polluants présents sur les surfaces de travail. Issue de travaux expérimentaux ayant permis d'identifier les paramètres influents, cette méthodologie est actuellement mise en oeuvre sur des cas professionnels réels afin de l'affiner et de la valider. Enfin, des outils d'évaluation des contaminations surfaciques automatisés sont actuellement à l'étude afin de s'affranchir d'éventuels biais opératoires, ce qui permettrait d'harmoniser encore davantage les pratiques.

Source: Esteve, W., Brochard, C., Matera, V., Melins, S., Poirot, H. et Ravera, C. (2019). Références en santé au travail (158), 85-94.
http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TF%20270

Measuring and controlling emissions from polymer filament desktop 3D printers

Affordable desktop 3D printers are being widely used in businesses, schools and colleges. Some of these printers use filaments to deposit polymer through a heated nozzle to build three dimensional objects. This type of desktop printer is generally unenclosed and some published studies have raised concerns that they may release potentially harmful fumes and particles. The scientific evidence base on exposures and potential health endpoints is being developed internationally.
This report describes initial research in a laboratory setting to a) measure emissions of particulates and volatile organic compounds from desktop 3D printers and b) investigate the effectiveness of control measures to reduce these printer emissions. Two common filament materials were investigated: polylactic acid (PLA) which is generally used in schools, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).
The research found that the heated filaments emitted large numbers of very small particles and volatile organic chemicals which could be breathed in. However, more research is required to establish if under real use conditions these printers release sufficient concentration of emissions to cause harm.

Source: https://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1146.htm

Study on reprotoxic chemicals

A range of legislative instruments are in place at EU level to manage and minimise the risks from occupational exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances. Carcinogenic chemicals can cause or promote cancers. Mutagenic chemicals can cause genetic mutations. Reprotoxic chemicals can damage the reproductive process.
This study assesses a number of options for moderning the current EU legislation, in particular regarding reprotoxic chemicals

Source: https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=8220&furtherPubs=yes

Travailler dans une ambiance thermique chaude

Nombre de salariés peuvent travailler dans une ambiance thermique chaude, à l'extérieur ou à leur poste de travail, liée directement à leur activité professionnelle ou au climat, lors d'une canicule par exemple. Ils sont ainsi exposés à des risques pour la santé parfois
graves et à des accidents de travail. Ce dossier rappelle les effets physiologiques de la chaleur sur le corps humain et les risques pour la santé. Sont ensuite présentés les différents paramètres des échanges thermiques et leurs mécanismes. L'évaluation des risques peut se faire à partir de la mesure de la contrainte thermique ou de la détermination de l'astreinte thermique au poste de travail. La prévention fait appel à des actions techniques, organisationnelles et individuelles, s'appuyant sur des dispositions réglementaires spécifiques et sur le rôle des services de santé au travail.

Source: Robert, L., Turpin-Legendre, E., Shettle, J., Tissot, C., Aubry, C. et Siano, B. (2019). Références en santé au travail (158), 31-55.
http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TC%20165

Human exposure to uranium in South African gold mining areas using barber-based hair sampling

Uranium (U) measurements in water, soil, and food related to gold mining activities in populated areas in Gauteng Province, South Africa, suggest the possibility of exposure levels that may lead to adverse health consequences, including cancer. Theoretical considerations on pathways of human uptake of significant exposures are plausible, but few data on directly measured human exposure are available. A cross-sectional study was conducted using human measurements to compare U levels with other settings around the globe (based on literature review), to explore potential exposure variability within the province, and to test the feasibility of recruiting subjects partially coming from vulnerable and difficult-to-reach populations. Wards of potentially high (HE) and low exposure (LE) were identified. Composite hair samples representing the respective local populations were collected from regular customers of selected barber shops over a period of 1–2 months. A total of 70 U concentrations were determined in 27 composite samples from 1332 individuals. U concentrations ranged from 31 μg/kg to 2524 μg/kg, with an arithmetic mean of 192 μg/kg (standard deviation, 310 μg/kg) and a median of 122 μg/kg. Although HE wards collectively showed higher U levels than LE wards (184 vs 134 μg/kg), differences were smaller than expected. In conclusion, detected U levels were higher than those from most other surveys of the general public. The barber-based approach was an efficient hair collection approach. Composite hair samples are not recommended, due to technical challenges in measuring U, and individual hair samples are needed in follow-up studies to determine predictors of exposure.

Source: Winde, F., Geipel, G., Espina, C. et Schüz, J. (2019). PloS one, 14(6).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219059

Programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM)

Vingt années de surveillance (1998-2017) des cas de mésothéliome, de leurs expositions et des processus d'indemnisation
En 1998, la Direction générale du travail (DGT) et la Direction générale de la santé (DGS) des ministères respectifs ont saisi Santé publique France pour mettre en place un programme national de surveillance des effets sanitaires de l'amiante : le programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM), marqueur spécifique des expositions passées à l'amiante.
À ce jour, le PNSM fonctionne depuis vingt ans. Ce rapport dresse un bilan essentiel de l'évolution de la situation épidémiologique des mésothéliomes pleuraux entre 1998 et 2017, en France, en termes d'incidence, de survie, d'expositions des patients atteints et de leur reconnaissance médico-sociale.
Malgré l'interdiction de l'usage de l'amiante en 1997 et du fait de l'effet différé de trente à quarante ans entre la première exposition et la survenue d'un mésothéliome, l'incidence du mésothéliome pleural continue à augmenter en France et cette augmentation est encore plus marquée chez les femmes, avec un doublement du nombre de nouveaux cas annuel depuis 1998.

Source: http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/Publications-et-outils/Rapports-et-syntheses/Travail-et-sante/2019/Programme-national-de-surveillance-du-mesotheliome-pleural-PNSM-vingt-annees-de-surveillance-1998-2017-des-cas-de-mesotheliome-de-leurs-expositions-et-des-processus-d-indemnisation

Halogenated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in the air of electronic waste recycling facilities

Evidence of high concentrations and multiple exposures
Background: In response to a worldwide increase in production of electronic waste, the e-recycling industry is rapidly rowing. E-recycling workers are exposed to many potentially toxic contaminants, among which flame retardants (FRs), mainly suspected of being endocrine disruptors, are thought to be the most prevalent.
Objective: To conduct an exposure assessment of four chemical groups of FRs in Canadian e-recycling facilities, and to identify the main cofactors of exposure.
Methods: Personal air samples were collected over a workday for 85 workers in six e-recycling facilities, grouped into three facility sizes, and for 15 workers in control commercial waste facilities. Total particulate matter was measured by gravimetry with stationary air samples. FRs were collected on OSHA versatile samplers, which allow particulate and vapor phases collection. Fifteen polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), nine novel brominated (NBFRs), two chlorinated (ClFRs), and fourteen organophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Sociodemographic data, tasks performed and materials processed by participating workers were recorded. Tobit regressions were used to identify cofactors of exposure, and their conclusions were corroborated using semi-parametric reverse Cox regressions.
Results: Thirty-nine of the 40 FRs analysed were detected in at least one air sample in e-recycling, and workers in this industry were exposed on average to 26 (range 12 to 39) different substances. The most detected chemical group of FRs in e-recycling was PBDEs with geometric mean sums of all congeners ranging from 120 to 5100?ng/m3, followed by OPEs with 740 to 1000?ng/m3, NBFRs with 7.6 to 100?ng/m3, and finally ClFRs with 3.9 to 32?mg/m3. The most important cofactor of exposure was the size of the e-recycling facility, with the largest one presenting on average 12 times the concentrations found in the control facility. Among tasks as potential cofactors of exposure, manual dismantling and baler operation exposed workers to some of the highest concentrations of PBDEs and ClFRs. There was a reduction of up to 27% in exposure to FRs associated with a 3-year increase in seniority. Finally, particulate matter concentrations in e-recycling facilities were highly correlated with all chemical classes except OPEs, and were higher in the large facility.
Conclusions: Among the FRs analysed, PBDE exposure was particularly high in e-recycling. Dust and particulate matter reduction strategies in these workplaces, together with training on proper working practices would certainly be important first steps to lower occupational exposures and prevent potential health effects.

Source: Gravel, S., Lavoué, J., Bakhiyi, B., Diamond, M. L., Jantunen, L. M., Lavoie, J., ... et Labrèche, F. (2019). Environment international, 128, 244-253.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.027

Caractérisation des émissions de bitume haute résistance au désenrobage (HRD) avec dope d'adhésivité

Produit de distillation du pétrole, le bitume est chauffé puis mélangé à de la matière minérale broyée (le granulat) pour former l'enrobé bitumineux qui est utilisé pour le pavage de la grande majorité des routes. Les gaz, vapeurs et particules émis lorsque le bitume ou l'enrobé est chauffé sont constitués d'un groupe complexe de composés chimiques réglementés sous le nom de fumées d'asphalte (ou de bitume), notamment dans le Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail du Québec. Si le bitume démontre un manque d'adhésivité au granulat selon la norme prescrite, une dope d'adhésivité (additif chimique) y est ajoutée. Ce type de bitume, que l'on nommera bitume haute résistance au désenrobage (HRD), est utilisé au Québec depuis environ 15 ans.
Depuis quelques années, des travailleurs du pavage se plaignent de problèmes d'irritation des yeux et du système respiratoire à la suite de l'utilisation de bitume HRD avec ce type d'additif. Cependant, les substances émises lors de la mise en œuvre d'un enrobé avec bitume HRD avec dope d'adhésivité ont fait l'objet de peu d'études. Les deux premiers objectifs de la présente étude étaient de caractériser en laboratoire les fumées émises par un bitume HRD avec additif pour ensuite identifier les composés chimiques spécifiques à ce type de bitume et qui sont soupçonnés irritants ou sensibilisants. Le troisième objectif était de développer une méthode de prélèvement et d'analyse des composés mis en évidence par cette recherche pour évaluation ultérieure en milieu de travail.

Source: https://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/101036/n/caracterisation-emissions-bitume-haute-resistance-desenrobage-dope-adhesivite

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