2018-10-01 12:00 - Messages

NF X43-215 - Prélèvement et analyse des aérosols semi-volatils

Exigences et méthodes d'essai
Le présent document décrit les procédures de mise au point, de validation et de mise en oeuvre de méthodes de prélèvement et d'analyse d'agents chimiques présents sous la forme d'un mélange de particules aériennes et de vapeur pour l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x43-215/qualite-de-l-air-air-des-lieux-de-travail-prelevement-et-analyse-des-aerosols-semi-volatils-exigences-et-methodes-d-essai/article/909349/fa191295

Asbestos: Modern Insights for Toxicology in the Era of Engineered Nanomaterials

Asbestos fibers are naturally occurring silicates that have been extensively used in the past, including house construction, but because of their toxicity, their use has been banned in 63 countries. Despite this, more than one million metric tons of asbestos are still consumed annually in countries where asbestos use has not been banned. Asbestos-related disease incidence is still increasing in several countries, including those countries that banned the use of asbestos more than 30 years ago. We highlight here recent knowledge obtained in experimental models about the mechanisms leading to tumor development following asbestos exposure, including genetic and epigenetic changes. Importantly, the landscape of alterations observed experimentally in tumor samples is consistent with alterations observed in clinical tumor samples; therefore, studies performed on early/precancer stages should help inform secondary prevention, which remains crucial in the absence of an efficient primary prevention. Knowledge gathered on asbestos should also help address future challenges, especially in view of the increased production of new materials that may behave similarly to asbestos fibers.

Source: Felley-Bosco, E. et MacFarlane, M. (2018). Chemical Research in Toxicology, 31(10), 994-1008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00146

ASTM E2535 - Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings

This guide is intended for use by entities involved in the handling of UNP in occupational settings. This guide covers handling principles and techniques that may be applied, as appropriate, to the variety of UNP materials and handling settings. These settings include research and development activities, material manufacturing, and material use and processing. This guide may also be used by entities that receive materials or articles containing or comprising nanoscale particles fixed upon or within a matrix (that is, bound nanoscale particles), but whose own processes or use may reasonably be expected to cause such particles to become unbound.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2535.htm

A health risk assessment of working in hypoxic atmospheres

Hypoxic atmospheres - those in which the ambient oxygen level is lower than normal – may be specifically generated in some workplaces, particularly for fire prevention. Such atmospheres potentially present a health risk to workers who are required to enter the hypoxic space. This report reviews the impact of hypoxia on human physiology, behaviour, and cognitive function, in order to provide information about the potential occupational health risks arising from working in hypoxic atmospheres.
The available evidence suggests that hypoxic environments in which the levels of oxygen are greater than 15% but below 21%, are safe for most healthy, fit individuals. However, prior to entry into such environments, risk assessments should be performed to cover: the working environment; the work and tasks undertaken; and the worker. Occupational health assessments should be in place for all workers who have a potential requirement to enter these atmospheres. Careful consideration should be given to: workers carrying out tasks that require higher levels of physical activity; and pregnant workers.
For hypoxic working environments between 12% and 15% oxygen, there is a lack of evidence-based or expert consensus-led guidance that addresses medical conditions and their severity. There is therefore an insufficient evidence-base to provide guidelines for safe working in hypoxic environments between 12-15% oxygen, other than relating to the use of supplemental oxygen.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1137.htm

ASTM D6877 - Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace

This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm

Validation of a measurement method for diacetyl using sorbent tubes and thermal desorption

Diacetyl, also known as 2,3-butanedione, and the closely related chemical 2,3-pentanedione, are naturally occurring substances with a characteristic butter-like odour found in foods such as dairy products, beer and fruits. Diacetyl is also added to various food products as artificial butter flavouring and both substances are present in emissions generated by coffee roasting and grinding. Occupational levels of diacetyl exposure has been linked with the lung disease bronchiolitis obliterans which is life threatening and irreversible. In Great Britain, occupational exposure limits to protect workers' health are based on recommendations from SCOEL (the European Commission Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits). SCOEL has recommended introducing an 8-hour time weighted average occupational exposure limit for diacetyl of 20 ppb and a short term exposure limit (STEL) of 100 ppb. Existing scientific measurement methods lack the necessary sensitivity to measure these levels of exposure.
This report describes a new sensitive method for measurement of diacetyl based on the use of thermal desorption tubes for sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis. The samplers may be used in either pumped (active) or diffusive (passive) mode. For measurement of short duration peak concentrations, or determining compliance with the STEL, pumped sampling is most effective. For longer sampling periods, in particular whole shift monitoring, diffusive sampling is preferable. This method is also applicable to 2,3-pentanedione.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1138.htm

ASTM E2563 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method

This practice allows for the recovery and enumeration of viable and culturable, non-tuberculosis, rapidly growing Mycobacteria  (M. immunogenum, M. chelonae, M. absessus, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) in the presence of high Gram-negative background populations in metalworking fluid field samples. During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. This population is predominantly comprised of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids has been putatively associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) amongst metalgrinding machinists. The detection and enumeration of these organisms will aid in better understanding of occupational health-related problems and a better assessment of antimicrobial pesticide efficacy.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2563.htm

La radioprotection des travailleurs

Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France: bilan 2017
Le bilan de la surveillance des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants concerne l'ensemble des secteurs d'activité soumis à un régime d'autorisation ou de déclaration, y compris ceux de la défense, dans les domaines des activités médicales et vétérinaires, de l'industrie nucléaire ou non nucléaire, de la recherche et de l'enseignement, ainsi que les secteurs concernés par une exposition à la radioactivité naturelle.
L'effectif suivi en 2017 dans le cadre des activités soumises à autorisation ou à déclaration est en augmentation de 0,9 % par rapport à 2016, avec 360 694 travailleurs. Parallèlement, la dose collective1 mesurée par
dosimétrie externe passive s'établit à 53,5 h.Sv pour 2017, contre 66,7 h.Sv en 2016. Avec une forte baisse par rapport à 2016 (- 20 %), cette valeur marque une rupture par rapport à celles observées en 2015 et 2016. Cette baisse significative de la dose collective est liée majoritairement à une baisse d'activité dans le domaine du nucléaire (volume de travaux de maintenance chez EDF moindre qu'en 2016) et de façon complémentaire à un changement méthodologique de plusieurs laboratoires de dosimétrie, intervenu courant 2017, qui évite de sousestimer le bruit de fond lorsque le dosimètre témoin n'est pas retourné par l'employeur avec les dosimètres individuels. La dose individuelle annuelle moyenne, d'une valeur de 0,72 mSv, est quant à elle stable par rapport à l'année précédente. Parmi les 12 712 travailleurs ayant reçu plus de 1 mSv (limite annuelle réglementaire fixée pour la population générale), 2 079 travailleurs ont reçu une dose annuelle supérieure à 5 mSv2. Une dose externe annuelle supérieure à 20 mSv (limite réglementaire de la dose efficace fixée pour les travailleurs) a été enregistrée pour 2 travailleurs. Quatre cas de dépassement de la limite de dose équivalente aux extrémités (500 mSv) ont également été enregistrés.

Source: https://www.irsn.fr/FR/expertise/rapports_expertise/Documents/radioprotection/IRSN_Rapport-Exposition-travailleurs-2017.pdf

Literature study on the uses and risks of nanomaterials as pigments in the European Union

This report provides a review on the safe use of nano-sized pigments when used by professionals, workers or consumers. Extensive literature searches were carried out in combination with analyses of data from national nano-inventories to capture the current state of play. The report provides a list of nano-sized pigments currently identified on the EU market and discusses potential risks arising from their use in paints, coatings, printer toner cartridges, personal care products, tattooes as well as other potential uses of nanopigments. Data for hazard and risk assessment are not available for the vast majority of identified nanopigments. Evidence-based conclusions on the safety of most nanopigments uses cannot be drawn, however, some general observations and conclusions can be derived. Dry pigments present the highest concern because they can be easily inhaled and ingested. Exposures to nano-sized pigments that are integrated into polymer, paint or coating matrices are not thought to be significant, and the risks to consumers from such uses are low. The report also discusses uncertainties associated with the identification of nanopigments (and nanomaterials in general), measurements of exposure to nano-sized pigments and methods of toxicity testing.

Source: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/dd38af13-bca7-11e8-99ee-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF

ASTM E2564 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method

During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. Measurement of mycobacterial cell count densities is an important step in establishing a possible relationship between mycobacteria and occupational health-related allergic responses, for example, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in persons exposed to aerosols of metalworking fluids. It is known that the viable mycobacteria count underestimates the total mycobacterial levels by not counting the non-culturable, possibly dead or moribund population that is potentially equally important in the investigation of occupational health-related problems. The direct microscopic counting method (DMC) described here gives a quantitative assessment of the total numbers of acid-fast bacilli. It involves using acid-fast staining to selectively identify mycobacteria from other bacteria, followed by enumeration or direct microscopic counting of a known volume over a known area. Although other microbes—particularly the Actinomycetes—also stain acid-fast, they are differentiated from the mycobacteria because of their morphology and size. Non-mycobacteria, acid-fast microbes are 50 to 100 times larger than mycobacteria. This practice provides quantitative information on the total (culturable and non-culturable viable, and non-viable) mycobacteria populations. The results are expressed quantitatively as mycobacteria per mL of metalworking fluid sample.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2564.htm

Infection Rates and Risk Factors for Infection Among Health Workers During Ebola and Marburg Virus Outbreaks

A Systematic Review
Infection in health workers (HWs) has characterized outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD). We conducted a systematic review to investigate infection and mortality rates and common exposure risks in HWs in EVD and MVD outbreaks.
We searched the EMBASE and PubMed databases to identify articles posted before 27 December 2017, with no language restrictions. Data on the number, frequency, and mortality of HW infection and exposure risks were extracted.
Ninety-four articles related to 22 outbreaks were included. HW infections composed 2%–100% of cases in EVD and 5%–50% of cases in MVD outbreaks. Among exposed HWs, 0.6%–92% developed EVD, and 1%–10% developed MVD. HW infection rates were consistent through outbreaks. The most common exposure risk situations were inadequate personal protective equipment and exposure to patients with unrecognized EVD/MVD. Similar risks were reported in past EVD/MVD outbreaks and in the recent outbreak in West Africa.
Many outbreaks reported high proportions of infected HWs. Similar HW infection rates and exposure risk factors in both past and recent EVD and MVD outbreaks emphasize the need to improve the implementation of appropriate infection control measures consistently across all healthcare settings.

Source: Selvaraj, S. A., Lee, K. E., Harrell, M., Ivanov, I. et Allegranzi, B. (2018). The Journal of infectious diseases (sous presse).
https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy435

NIOSH Releases Beta Version of New Respirable Crystalline Silica Monitoring Software

Mines can now monitor worker exposure to hazardous respirable crystalline silica (RCS) more effectively thanks to new software developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Program in beta version. This novel, field-based tool called “FAST” (Field Analysis of Silica Tool), works together with commercially available FTIR analyzers (Fourier Transform Infrared) to determine a worker's exposure to RCS dust, providing detailed results immediately following a worker's shift.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-10-03-18.html

Cancer de la vessie et expositions professionnelles aux fluides de coupe

Étude épidémiologique parmi les travailleurs de la sidérurgie en France
L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher s'il existe un risque de cancer de la vessie associé à des expositions professionnelles à des brouillards d'huiles, issus de l'utilisation d'huiles entières ou de fluides aqueux. Une étude cas-témoins a été mise en place au sein d'une cohorte de 22 795 travailleurs de la sidérurgie du Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Les cas de cancer de vessie ont été diagnostiqués entre 2006 et 2012. Trois témoins par cas ont été tirés au sort parmi les sujets de la cohorte. L'évaluation des expositions professionnelles a été réalisée par deux experts.
Cette étude suggère que des expositions professionnelles aux huiles entières sont associées à un risque accru de cancers de la vessie survenant 5 à 25 ans après ces expositions.
Elle ne peut pas exclure un lien avec des expositions récentes aux fluides solubles. En revanche, aucune association n'est mise en évidence avec des expositions plus anciennes, ni avec les expositions aux fluides synthétiques.

Source: Bourgkard, E., Colin, R., Bertrand, C., Veille, M., Genoud, J., Rousselle, D., Girardey, C., Goutet, P., Wild, P., Grzebyk, M. (2018). Références en santé au travail (155), 51-63.
http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=TF%20258

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