2017-05-01 12:00 - Messages

IARC Monographs Volume 111: Some Nanomaterials and Some Fibres

This volume of the IARC Monographs contains evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans of fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole, silicon carbide fibres and whiskers, and carbon nanotubes. None of these agents had been evaluated previously by the Working Group.

Source: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol111/index.php

Evaluation of the DRIFT gas dispersion model version 3.6.4

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) uses gas dispersion modelling in its assessment of the hazards and risks posed by toxic and flammable substances stored at major hazards sites. To update its dispersion modelling capability, HSE recently commissioned ESR Technology to develop a new version of the gas dispersion model DRIFT (Dispersion of Releases Involving Flammables or Toxics). The new version of the model, DRIFT Version 3 (DRIFT 3), includes a significant number of modelling enhancements over the version of DRIFT previously used within HSE (DRIFT 2.31). These include the extension of the model to treat buoyant plumes and time varying releases. Prior to DRIFT 3 being adopted for use by HSE, it must undergo thorough evaluation and assessment.
This report describes the evaluation of DRIFT version 3.6.4 in accordance with a Model Evaluation Protocol originally developed for the evaluation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapour dispersion models. The protocol sets out a method of scientific assessment, verification and validation for heavy gas dispersion models where the results are recorded in a model evaluation report (MER). Overall, the evaluation exercise found DRIFT version 3.6.4 to be fit for purpose.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1100.htm

DERMaL eToolkit

Emergency response personnel are often at risk of getting dangerous chemicals on their skin. Despite the availability of numerous high-quality resources designed to guide emergency management and operations personnel, data gaps continue to exist on specific hazards or scenarios. Available resources contain an overwhelming quantity of data on inhalation exposures, but data related to dermal exposures are more challenging to find. Dermal contact is an important exposure pathway and can present significant health risks [Dotson et al. 2015].
The goal of the DERMaL eToolkit is to provide informational resources and tools associated with dermal exposures to chemicals. The resources and tools are intended to be used to assist in assessing the hazards associated with dermal contact with chemicals during emergency response activities. The DERMaL eToolkit is organized by 1) incident phase, 2) information categories, and 3) resource types.

Source: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2017/05/24/dermal-etoolkit/

Exposition des professionnels médicaux aux rayonnements ionisants et risque de cancer

Les expositions aux rayonnements ionisants (RI) à forte dose ont été reconnues comme facteur de risque de cancers (1). Les effets à long terme des rayonnements ionisants à faibles et moyennes doses restent débattus. De nombreuses études épidémiologiques portant sur le suivi des survivants des bombardements d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki et sur le suivi des travailleurs exposés aux RI ont montré des augmentations de risque de cancer et de pathologies cardiovasculaires (2). Les professionnels de santé, notamment les radiologues, ont été les premières populations de travailleurs étudiées en raison des fortes expositions professionnelles qui prévalaient de la fin des années 1890 au début du XXème siècle. Suite à la mise en place du système de radioprotection, les doses reçues ont considérablement diminué, passant de 100 mSv par an au début du XXème siècle à moins de 5 mSv par an dans les années 1980 chez les manipulateurs de radiologie (3). Au cours des trente dernières années, le développement rapide de nouvelles techniques d’imagerie diagnostique, interventionnelle et scintigraphique, utilisant des RI, a entrainé une nouvelle augmentation de l’exposition aux RI chez certains professionnels de santé. Si ces nouvelles techniques permettent un bénéfice médical certain pour les patients, il est nécessaire d’évaluer l’impact de ces expositions chroniques sur les personnels médicaux exposés aux RI qui constituent une part importante de l’ensemble des travailleurs exposés aux RI (63 % des travailleurs français en 2013) (4). Dans ce contexte, deux articles ont été publiés récemment : l’un porte sur une étude américaine évaluant le risque de cancer chez les manipulateurs de radiologie effectuant des procédures interventionnelles guidées par fluoroscopie ; l’autre porte sur l’association entre exposition aux RI et incidence de cancers chez les personnels médicaux chinois exposés aux RI.

Source: Baysson, Hélène. (2017). Bulletin de veille scientifique (31).
http://bvs.mag.anses.fr/sites/default/files/BVS-mg-031-Baysson.pdf

Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk

Background: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO.
Methods: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated.
Results: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR = 0.9, 95%CI = 0.6-1.3, p linear trend = 0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ μT years, respectively.
Conclusion: An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found.

Source: Carlberg, M., Koppel, T., Ahonen, M., & Hardell, L. (2017). American journal of industrial medicine.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22707

Guide pour la prophylaxie et le suivi après une exposition au VIH, au VHB et au VHC

Ce document constitue une mise à jour du Guide pour la prophylaxie après une exposition au VIH, au VHB et au VHC dans un contexte non professionnel et du Guide pour une prophylaxie postexposition (PPE) à des liquides biologiques dans le contexte du travail édités par le ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux en 2010 et en 2011 respectivement. Il est le résultat du fusionnement de ces deux publications.

Source: http://asstsas.qc.ca/msss-guide-pour-la-prophylaxie-et-le-suivi-apres-une-exposition-au-vih-au-vhb-et-au-vhc-0

Appraisal of levels and patterns of occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene

Levels and extents of occupational exposures to 1,3-butadiene are not yet extensively evaluated. The present study is the first Italian study that evaluated exposure to 1,3-butadiene basing on a large sample of measurements and using several statistical analysis methods to identify high-risk exposure situations. The present study also intends to contribute to raise public awareness about occupational exposure levels to 1,3-butadiene.

Source: Scarselli A, Corfiati M, Di Marzi D, Iavicoli S. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3644

Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in lymphocytes of oncology department personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs

Objective: Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel. Materials and methods: To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G0 phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. These cytogenetic end points were measured among 71 nurses in oncology department and 10 drugstore personnel handling and preparing anti-neoplastic drugs. The results were compared to those of 74 matched nurses for age and sex not exposed to any anti-neoplastic agents. Results: There was no significant difference between the age of study subjects and control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the mean frequency of cytogenetic damages in terms of CAs [chromatid breaks (p = 0.01), chromosome breaks (p = 0.005), total CAs (p = 0.001)], MN formation (p = 0.001), and SCE (p = 0.004) in lymphocytes of personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs were significantly higher than those in control unexposed group. Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrate the cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of oncology department personnel. Suitable training and proper knowledge when handling anti-neoplastic drugs are emphasized to avoid potential health hazards caused by cytostatic agents.

Source: Mahmoodi, Majid, Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed, Zendehdel, Kazem, Mozdarani, Hossein, Azimi, Cyrus, Farzanfar, Farideh,... Rezaei, Nima. (2017). Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 40(2), 235-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2016.1209678

Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease

An update of a Danish cohort study among utility workers
Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period of follow-up.
Methods: We investigated the risks for dementia, motor neurone disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy among 32,006 men employed at the 99 utility companies that supplied Denmark with electricity during the period 1900–1993. Cases were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and the cohort was followed during 1982–2010. Exposure was estimated from a job-exposure matrix based on company records of job title and area of work and cohort members were allocated to one of three categories (<0.1, 0.1–0.99 and ≥1.0 µT).
Results: For dementia, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy the incidence rate ratios (IRR) were close to unity, but higher for motor neurone disease [IRR 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86–1.79] and lower for Parkinson disease (IRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67–0.97) among workers exposed to ≥0.1 µT compared with the Danish population. For the highest level of exposure (≥1.0 µT), IRRs of 1.44, 1.78, 1.40 and 1.34 were observed for dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, respectively.
Conclusions: We observed elevated risks of dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy and lower risks of Parkinson disease in relation to exposure to ELF-MF in a large cohort of utility employees.

Source: Pedersen, C., Poulsen, A. H., Rod, N. H., Frei, P., Hansen, J., Grell, K., ... & Johansen, C. (2017). International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-017-1224-0

Interim Guidance for Managing Occupational Exposures to Zika Virus for Healthcare Personnel

Zika virus is primarily spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. Sexual and maternal-fetal transmission have also been well described. Transmission via transfusion of blood products has been reported in Brazil, but to date, transmission of Zika virus via blood transfusion has not been reported in the United States. There is currently no clinical evidence that Zika virus is transmitted through the air.
In June 2016, there was a report of possible Zika virus transmission from an infected person to a family member in the United States; the exact mechanism of transmission and whether transmission occurred in the home or in a healthcare setting are unclear. There have been no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to healthcare personnel (HCP) or to other patients in healthcare settings. However, transmission related to occupational exposure to Zika virus has occurred in laboratory workers, including one in 2016 in which a research laboratorian became infected via a needlestick injury.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/infection-control/managing-occupational-exposures.html

Mesures de prévention et contrôle des infections pour la gestion des cas et des contacts d’oreillons en milieu de soins

Une éclosion de cas d’oreillons est survenue chez des résidents en médecine d’un centre hospitalier universitaire du Québec à l’automne 2016. Le cas source avait acquis son infection lors d’un séjour à l’extérieur du Canada et demeure dans une autre région sociosanitaire. Des cas se sont retrouvés dans plusieurs milieux de soins au Québec.
Selon les données recueillies lors des enquêtes épidémiologiques auprès des cas, la transmission semble être survenue directement entre les résidents en médecine, possiblement lors d’activités sociales plutôt que lors de prestations de soins.
Devant cette situation, la Direction générale de la santé publique (DGSP) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) a demandé au Comité sur les infections nosocomiales du Québec (CINQ) de l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) de produire un avis sur les mesures particulières de prévention et contrôle des infections (PCI) à mettre en place. Le présent document répond à ces préoccupations.

Source: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/sites/default/files/publications/2245_prevention_controle_infections_oreillons_milieu_soins.pdf

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