2016-08-01 12:00 - Messages

Genetic Basis of Irritant Susceptibility in Health Care Workers

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in inflammation, skin barrier integrity, signaling/pattern recognition, and antioxidant defense with irritant susceptibility in a group of health care workers.
Methods: The 536 volunteer subjects were genotyped for selected SNPs and patch tested with three model irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate custom panels.
Results: The ACACB (rs2268387, rs16934132, rs2284685), NTRK2 (rs10868231), NTRK3 (rs1347424), IL22 (rs1179251), PLAU (rs2227564), EGFR (rs6593202), and FGF2 (rs308439) SNPs showed an association with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models (all at P?<?0.001). Functional annotations identified two SNPs in PLAU (rs2227564) and ACACB (rs2284685) genes with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, EGF (rs10029654), EGFR (rs12718939), CXCL12 (rs197452), and VCAM1 (rs3917018) genes showed an association with hand dermatitis (P?<?0.005).
Conclusions: The results demonstrate that genetic variations in genes related to inflammation and skin homeostasis can influence responses to irritants and may explain inter-individual variation in the development of subsequent contact dermatitis.

Source: Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Barmada, M. Michael; Johnson, Victor J.; Kashon, Michael L.; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W.; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I.; Nedorost, Susan. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. 753-759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000784

Occupation and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Nordic Countries

Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of bladder cancer incidence according to occupational categories in the Nordic countries.
Methods: The study cohort comprised 15 million individuals older than 30 years who participated in one or more population censuses in 1960, 1970, 1980/1981, and/or 1990. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 53 occupational categories.
Results: Significantly increased SIRs were observed among tobacco workers (1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 1.96), chimney sweeps (1.48; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.80), waiters (1.43; 95% CI 1.33 to 1.53), hairdressers (1.28; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.40), seamen (1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.30), printers (1.21; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.30), and plumbers (1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.30). A significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer was observed among gardeners (0.78, 0.75 to 0.80), forestry workers (0.74; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.78), and farmers (0.70; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.71).
Conclusions: The SIR of bladder cancer was overall similar across the Nordic countries. The study suggests that occupation is evidently associated with bladder cancer risk.

Source: Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. e301-e307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000803

The Effects of Occupational Exposure of Carbon Disulfide on Sexual Hormones and Semen Quality of Male Workers From a Chemical Fiber Factory

Objective: This study is aimed to analyze the relationship between occupational CS2 exposure and reproductive impairments.
Methods: Seventy-six CS2-exposed (9.73?±?2.76?mg/m3) male workers and 94 unexposed workers were selected for study. Worker demographics were assessed with a customized questionnaire. Sexual hormones and sperm-related parameters were measured by biochemical or morphological analysis.
Results: The CS2-exposed workers had significantly higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lower levels of testosterone (T). Significant decrements were also identified in sperm viability and motility, chromatin, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP), and respiratory chain Complexes II and IV.
Conclusions: Our data indicated that occupational CS2 exposure can exert deleterious effects on male sexual hormones and sperm quality, and mitochondrial dysfunction may play a vital role in this process.

Source: Guo, Yinsheng; Ma, Yue; Chen, Guoyuan; Cheng, Jinquan. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2016, Volume 58, Issue 8, p. e294-e300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000823

The estimated prevalence of exposure to asthmagens in the Australian workforce, 2014

Background: There is very little information available on a national level as to the number of people exposed to specific asthmagens in workplaces.
Methods: We conducted a national telephone survey in Australia to investigate the prevalence of current occupational exposure to 277 asthmagens, assembled into 27 groups. Demographic and current job information were obtained. A web-based tool, OccIDEAS, was used to collect job task information and assign exposure to each asthmagen group.
Results: In the Australian Workplace Exposure Study – Asthma (AWES- Asthma) we interviewed 4878 participants (2441 male and 2437 female). Exposure to at least one asthmagen was more common among men (47 %) than women (40 %). Extrapolated to the Australian population, approximately 2.8 million men and 1.7 million women were estimated to be exposed. Among men, the most common exposures were bioaerosols (29 %) and metals (27 %), whilst the most common exposures among women were latex (25 %) and industrial cleaning and sterilising agents (20 %).
Conclusions: This study provides information about the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens in Australian workplaces which will be useful in setting priorities for control and prevention of occupational asthma.

Source: Fritschi, L., J. Crewe, E. Darcey, A. Reid, D. C. Glass, G. P. Benke, T. Driscoll, S. Peters, S. Si, M. J. Abramson and R. N. Carey (2016). BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 16: 48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-016-0212-6

Enceintes ventilées

Après l'évaluation des risques professionnels faite par l'employeur, le service de santé au travail (SST) a un rôle essentiel en matière de conseil sur les mesures de prévention à mettre en place dans les entreprises. Dans les laboratoires
d'analyse, les laboratoires de recherche, la fabrication ou la reconstitution de médicaments cytotoxiques, l'assemblage de pièces électroniques..., l'utilisation d'enceintes ventilées peut être nécessaire. En fonction des caractéristiques propres à chacune d'entre elles, le SST pourra adapter au mieux ses recommandations en matière de prévention des risques chimiques et biologiques en fonction de la situation de travail concernée.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=TP%2024

Acide fluorhydrique en solution aqueuse. Risques à l'utilisation en milieu professionnel et mesures de prévention

Le fluorure d'hydrogène (de formule chimique HF, N° CAS 7664-39-3), mieux connu sous le nom d'acide fluorhydrique, est une matière première utilisée pour la fabrication d'un grand nombre de produits chimiques. L'utilisation des acides est très répandue dans l'industrie et leurs propriétés corrosives sont bien connues, mais le cas de l'acide fluorhydrique est particulier; en effet, les brûlures qu'il occasionne, aggravées par sa grande affinité pour le calcium sanguin, imposent une prise en charge immédiate afin d'éviter des conséquences qui peuvent être dramatiques

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206223

Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, une méthode simple et performante

Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, fondé sur le principe de la diffusion moléculaire, simplifie l'étape du prélèvement lors de l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles au risque chimique. Faciles à utiliser, légers et peu coûteux, les badges passifs sont une alternative intéressante et performante aux traditionnels modes de prélèvement actif par pompage.

Source: Eddy Langlois. Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2016.
http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=DC%2013

Guide sur l'entreposage des produits dangereux dans le secteur manufacturier

L'entreposage sécuritaire des produits dangereux consiste à séparer les produits incompatibles les uns des autres dans le but de limiter l'impact d'un déversement et de réduire les risques d'incendie ou de réactions violentes.
Ce document propose une méthode en quatre étapes pour aider à organiser et à mettre en place un plan d'entreposage qui répondra aux principales exigences du Code National de Prévention des Incendies (CNPI), du Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail (RSST), de la norme NFPA30 Code des liquides inflammables et combustibles, ed. 1996 et des règles de l'art en matière d'entreposage.

Source: http://multiprevention.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/guide-entreposage-produits-dangereux.pdf

Dermatites de contact professionnelles chez les vétérinaires et les personnels de soins aux animaux

Les dermatites de contact professionnelles observées chez les vétérinaires, le personnel des zoos (dont les soigneurs) et des animaleries de compagnie (vendeurs-conseil, personnels de nettoyage) sont des dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques, des urticaires de contact et des dermatites de contact aux protéines. Les principaux irritants sont les désinfectants et détergents, le travail en milieu humide. Les principaux allergènes sont les protéines d'origine animale, les médicaments, les biocides (notamment dans les désinfectants) et les additifs du caoutchouc. Le diagnostic étiologique nécessite des tests allergologiques avec la batterie standard européenne, les batteries spécialisées et les produits professionnels. La prévention technique doit mettre en oeuvre toutes les mesures susceptibles de réduire l'exposition.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TA%20100

Taking stock of the occupational safety and health challenges of nanotechnology: 2000–2015

Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify significant contributions to worker safety and health. The occupational safety and health field has responded effectively to identify gaps in knowledge and practice, but further research is warranted and is described. There is now a greater, if imperfect, understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle toxicology, hazards to workers, and appropriate controls for nanomaterials, but unified analytical standards and exposure characterization methods are still lacking. The development of control-banding and similar strategies has compensated for incomplete data on exposure and risk, but it is unknown how widely such approaches are being adopted. Although the importance of epidemiologic studies and medical surveillance is recognized, implementation has been slowed by logistical issues. Responsible development of nanotechnology requires protection of workers at all stages of the technological life cycle. In each of the functional areas assessed, progress has been made, but more is required.

Source: Schulte, Paul A.; Hodson, Laura; Murashov, Vladimir; Hoover , Mark D.; Zumwalde, Ralph D.; Kuempel, Eileen; Geraci, Charles L.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Castranova, Vincent; Howard, John. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2016.

Risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and interstitial lung diseases among pigeon breeders

We studied the risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) among pigeon breeders.
This is a retrospective follow-up study from 1980 to 2013 of 6920 pigeon breeders identified in the records of the Danish Racing Pigeon Association. They were compared with 276?800 individually matched referents randomly drawn from the Danish population. Hospital based diagnoses of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other ILDs were identified in the National Patient Registry 1977–2013. Stratified Cox regression analyses estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other ILDs adjusted for occupation, residence and redeemed prescription of medication with ILDs as a possible side-effect. Subjects were censored at death, emigration or a diagnosis of connective tissue disease.
The overall incidence rate of ILD was 77.4 per 100?000 person-years among the pigeon breeders and 50.0 among the referents. This difference corresponded to an adjusted HR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.26–1.94). The adjusted HRs of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other ILDs for pigeon breeders were 14.36 (95% CI 8.10–25.44) and 1.33 (95% CI 1.05–1.69), respectively.
This study shows an increased risk of ILD among pigeon breeders compared with the referent population. Protective measures are recommended even though ILD leading to hospital contact remains rare among pigeon breeders.

Source: Cramer C, Schlünssen V, Bendstrup E, et al. European Respiratory Journal, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00376-2016

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