2014-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Modélisation par simulation numérique de la ventilation des silos-tours en tenant compte de la chute

Les silos à fourrage sont des espaces clos où surviennent des accidents graves et mortels. Certains de ces accidents sont liés à une atmosphère déficiente en oxygène (O2) en raison de la présence de gaz carbonique (CO2), ou encore à celle de gaz toxiques, dont le dioxyde d'azote (NO2). Ces gaz sont produits lors du processus de fermentation des fourrages.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-ventilation-des-silos-tours-r-818.html

La sécurité et la santé dans l’utilisation des produits chimiques au travail

«La sécurité et la santé dans l'utilisation des produits chimiques au travail» est le thème de l'édition 2014 de la Journée mondiale de la sécurité et de la santé au travail. A l'occasion de cette journée, un rapport de l'OIT montre que si les produits chimiques peuvent être utiles, des mesures indispensables doivent être prises pour prévenir ou contrôler leurs effets indésirables sur les travailleurs, les lieux de travail, la population et l'environnement.

Source: http://www.ilo.org/safework/events/meetings/WCMS_235596/lang--fr/index.htm

Research shows that early workplace screening can play a key role in preventing occupational asthma and lung disease.

Anyone with asthma will tell you just how uncomfortable and frightening the respiratory disease can be. The narrowing of the airways causes difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, wheezing, coughing, and exhaustion.
When a substance or condition in the workplace causes the chronic condition, it's known as occupational asthma. New research indicates that early changes in lung function are a predictor of this and other lung diseases. It also shows there's much more employers can do to screen those at risk of developing lung problems and provide comprehensive exposure prevention in the workplace.
A WorkSafeBC-supported study looked at the effects of repeated exposures and related incidence of occupational asthma and lung diseases.

Source: http://worksafebc.com/publications/newsletters/worksafe_magazine/Assets/PDF/current/WorkScience.pdf

Promotion of lung adenocarcinoma following inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Engineered carbon nanotubes are currently used in many consumer and industrial products such as paints, sunscreens, cosmetics, toiletries, electronic processes and industrial lubricants. Carbon nanotubes are among the more widely used nanoparticles and come in two major commercial forms, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and the more rigid, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The low density and small size of these particles makes respiratory exposures likely. Many of the potential health hazards have not been investigated, including their potential for carcinogenicity. We, therefore, utilized a two stage initiation/promotion protocol to determine whether inhaled MWCNT act as a complete carcinogen and/or promote the growth of cells with existing DNA damage. Six week old, male, B6C3F1 mice received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of either the initiator methylcholanthrene(MCA, 10 μg/g BW, i.p.), or vehicle (corn oil). One week after i.p. injections, mice were exposed by inhalation to MWCNT (5 mg/m3, 5 hours/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (controls) for a total of 15 days. At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for lung tumor formation.

Source: Linda M Sargent, Dale W Porter, Lauren M Staska, Ann F Hubbs, David T Lowry, Lori Battelli, Katelyn J Siegrist, Michael L Kashon, Robert R Mercer, Alison K Bauer, Bean T Chen, Jeffrey L Salisbury, David Frazer, Walter McKinney, Michael Andrew, Shuji Tsuruoka, Morinobu Endo, Kara L Fluharty, Vince Castranova, Steven H Reynolds, Occupational Safety and Health Reporter, January 16 2014, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 51.
http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/11/1/3

Heat Strain and Hydration Status of Surface Mine Blast Crew Workers

Objective: Dehydration and symptoms of heat illness are common among the surface mining workforce. This investigation aimed to determine whether heat strain and hydration status exceeded recommended limits.
Methods: Fifteen blast crew personnel operating in the tropics were monitored across a 12-hour shift. Heart rate, core body temperature, and urine-specific gravity were continuously recorded. Participants self-reported fluid consumption and completed a heat illness symptom inventory.
Results: Core body temperature averaged 37.46 ± 0.13°C, with the group maximum 37.98 ± 0.19°C. Mean urine-specific gravity was 1.024 ± 0.007, with 78.6% of samples 1.020 or more. Seventy-three percent of workers reported at least one symptom of heat illness during the shift.
Conclusions: Core body temperature remained within the recommended limits; however, more than 80% of workers were dehydrated before commencing the shift, and tended to remain so for the duration.

Source: Hunt, Andrew P. PhD; Parker, Anthony W. PhD; Stewart, Ian B. PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 409–414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000114

Genetic Variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Genes Are Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Asthma

Objective: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA).
Methods: The study population consisted of 140 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina GoldenGate major histocompatibility complex panels.
Results: The HLA-E rs1573294 and HLA-DPB1 rs928976 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of DA under dominant (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37 to 16.6; OR, 2.79, 95% CI, 0.99 to 7.81, respectively) and recessive genetic models (OR, 6.27, 95% CI, 1.63 to 24.13; OR, 10.10, 95% CI, 3.16 to 32.33, respectively). The HLA-B rs1811197, HLA-DOA rs3128935, and HLA-DQA2 rs7773955 SNPs conferred an increased risk of DA in a dominant model (OR, 7.64, 95% CI, 2.25 to 26.00; OR, 19.69, 95% CI, 2.89 to 135.25; OR, 8.43, 95% CI, 3.03 to 23.48, respectively).
Conclusion: These results suggest that genetic variations within HLA genes play a role in DA risk.

Source: Yucesoy, Berran PhD; Johnson, Victor J. PhD; Lummus, Zana L. PhD; Kashon, Michael L. PhD; Rao, Marepalli PhD; Bannerman-Thompson, Hansen PhD; Frye, Bonnie BSc; Wang, Wei MS; Gautrin, Denyse PhD; Cartier, André MD; Boulet, Louis-Philippe MD; Sastre, Joaquin MD; Quirce, Santiago MD; Tarlo, Susan M. MD; Germolec, Dori R. PhD; Luster, Michael I. PhD; Bernstein, David I. MD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 382–387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000138

Continued Spirometry Changes After Cessation of Exposure in Asbestos-Cement Workers

Objective: To assess further progression of spirometry parameters among former asbestos-cement plant workers.
Methods: The following parameters were assessed: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio (FEV1/FVC) using a linear regression model with mixed effects.
Results: The analysis included 3005 individuals. Spirometrically defined restrictive ventilatory defects were registered in 21.6% of the patients, obstructive defects in 8.3%, whereas mixed changes in 7%. Current smokers had significantly lower levels of FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC and a steeper decline compared with nonsmokers. More rapid progression was also observed along with increasing termination of exposure. Having higher exposure was associated with a slower decline in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios.
Conclusions: This report indicates that asbestos-cement workers with higher cumulative exposure still had lower mean levels of spirometric parameters, despite cessation of asbestos exposure many years ago.

Source: Swiatkowska, Beata PhD; Wojciech, Sobala MSc; Szubert, Zuzanna PhD; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila Prof. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 403–408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000117

Occupational Determinants of Cumulative Lead Exposure

Analysis of Bone Lead Among Men in the VA Normative Aging Study
Objectives: To examine the relation between occupation and cumulative lead exposure—assessed by measuring bone lead—in a community-dwelling population.
Method: We measured bone lead concentration with K-shell X-Ray Fluorescence in 1320 men in the Normative Aging Study. We categorized job titles into 14 broad US Census Bureau categories. We used ordinary least squares regression to estimate bone lead by job categories adjusted for other predictors.
Results: Service workers, construction, and extractive craft workers and installation, maintenance, and repair craft workers had the highest bone lead concentrations. Including occupations significantly improved the overall model (P < 0.001) and reduced by 15% to 81% the association between bone lead and education categories.
Conclusion: Occupation significantly predicts cumulative lead exposure in a community-dwelling population and accounts for a large proportion of the association between education and bone lead.

Source: Ji, John S. ScD; Schwartz, Joel PhD; Sparrow, David DSc; Hu, Howard MD, MPH, ScD; Weisskopf, Marc G. PhD, ScD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 435–440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000127

Occupational Heat Strain in a Hot Underground Metal Mine

Objective: In a hot underground metal mine, this study evaluated the relationship between job task, physical body type, work shift, and heat strain.
Methods: Thirty-one miners were evaluated during 98 shifts while performing deep shaft-sinking tasks. Continuous core body temperature, heart rate, pre- and postshift urine specific gravity (USG), and body mass index were measured.
Results: Cutting and welding tasks were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) increased core body temperature, maximum heart rate, and increased postshift urine specific gravity. Miners in the obese level II and III body mass index categories, as well as those working night shift, had lower core body temperatures (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: This study confirms that job task, body type, and shift are risk factors for heat strain.

Source: Lutz, Eric A. PhD, CMSP; Reed, Rustin J. MPH; Turner, Dylan BSPH; Littau, Sally R. BS, MT. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 388–396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000107 

Ozone

Health hazards and control measures
This guidance is primarily aimed at employers and managers of people exposed to ozone in the course of their work. Other groups, such as employees and health and safety professionals, will also find the guidance useful.
It draws attention to the potential ill health which exposure to ozone can cause and indicates potential sources of ozone at work as well as offering advice on the precautions you may need to take to prevent or control exposure.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eh38.htm

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