2014-01-01 12:00 - Messages

Sites radioélectriques de téléphonie mobile

Conception des sites et des situations de travail associées
La téléphonie cellulaire s'est fortement développée ces dernières années et plusieurs dizaines de milliers de stations de base de téléphonie ont été déployées. Parallèlement, la mise en oeuvre de nouvelles technologies nécessite une évolution régulière du réseau. Dans ce contexte, les risques, déjà bien connus d'accidents du travail et de maladies professionnelles, trouvent une occasion de se renforcer.
Cette brochure vise à favoriser l'intégration des principes et moyens de prévention des risques, le plus en amont possible, dès la conception même des situations, des lieux et des équipements de travail. Elle traite notamment des connaissances générales sur le domaine, de l'intégration de la prévention aux différentes étapes de la vie d'un site et, surtout, des moyens de prévention à prévoir dès la conception des sites. Elle s'adresse prioritairement aux maîtres d'ouvrages, maîtres d'oeuvres, coordonnateurs de sécurité et de protection de la santé, et à toute entreprise intervenant dans la conception, la construction ou la maintenance de sites radioélectriques de téléphonie mobile.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%206160

Nanoparticules synthétiques

Gestion adaptative des risques à la santé et à la sécurité des travailleurs
De plus en plus les nanotechnologies suscitent un grand intérêt autant sur le plan industriel que médical. Cependant, la production de nanoparticules synthétiques (NPS) continue de croître alors que les impacts sanitaires et environnementaux n'ont pas tous été évalués, amenant ainsi de nouveaux problèmes. Consécutivement à l'expansion du marché des nanotechnologies, le nombre de travailleurs exposés continue d'augmenter. Bien qu'aucun consensus mondial ne se dégage en ce qui a trait à une définition et une règlementation clairement adaptées aux NPS, le besoin de protéger les travailleurs reste capital et passe par une gestion des risques adaptée.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-nanoparticules-synthetiques-r-798.html

The Impact of Reduced Dust Exposure on Respiratory Health Among Cement Workers

An Ecological Study
Objectives: To compare total dust exposure, prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among Tanzanian cement workers before (2002) and after (2010–2011) establishment of dust-control measures.
Methods: Personal total dust-exposure measurements, questionnaire assessment for chronic respiratory symptoms, and spirometry were conducted in both examination periods.
Results: Total dust exposure was lower in 2010–2011 than in 2002. The prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms and COPD was lower in 2010 than in 2002. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), percentage predicted FEV1, and percentage predicted forced vital capacity were higher among cement workers in 2010 than in 2002.
Conclusions: There was reduced total dust exposure level, lower prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and COPD, and higher lung function among cement workers in 2010 than in 2002.

Source : Tungu, Alexander Mtemi MD; Bråtveit, Magne PhD; Mamuya, Simon H. PhD; Moen, Bente E. PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine:
January 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 1 - p 101–110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000057

Cross-Sectional Study on Respiratory Morbidity in Workers After Exposure to Synthetic Amorphous Silica at Five German Production Plants

Exposure Assessment and Exposure Estimates
Objectives: Synthetic amorphous silicas (SASs) are nanostructured polymorphs of silicon dioxide. We compared two different exposure assessments.
Methods: This study estimated cumulative exposure to inhalable SAS dust in 484 male workers from five German SAS-producing plants. Two procedures (P1 and P2) were applied. P1 was based on an expert assessment. P2 was a multiple exposure assessment (15 scenarios) anchored by a recent measurement series (1375 personal measurements of inhalable SAS dust concentration) and used expert assessments.
Results: Cumulative exposure estimates for P1 averaged 56.9 mg/m3·yrs (range, 0.1 to 419); for a selected P2 scenario, the mean was 31.8 mg/m3·yrs (range, 0.4 to 480), (P < 0.0001). Averages varied between the 15 P2-scenarios from 12.6 to 109.6 mg/m3·yrs. Different time trends for SAS concentrations were observed.
Conclusions: Both approaches suffer from considerable uncertainties that need to be considered in epidemiological studies.

Source : Morfeld, Peter; Taeger, Dirk; Mitura, Heike; Bosch, Axel; Nordone, Adrian; Vormberg, Reinhard; McCunney, Robert; Merget, Rolf. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: January 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 1 - p 72–78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000055

Cross-Sectional Survey of Workers Exposed to Aliphatic Diisocyanates Using Detailed Respiratory Medical History and Questions Regarding Accidental Skin and Respiratory Exposures

Objectives: To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates.
Methods: Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma.
Results: No cases of occupational asthma were identified. Nevertheless, many employees reported occasional accidental unprotected skin exposures and/or detecting the odor of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate or isophorone diisocyanate.
Conclusions: Consistent with a previous study, no cases of occupational asthma were identified from exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, methylene bis(4-cyclohexyl isocyanate), or their polyisocyanates even though many employees reported detection of odors (93%) or skin exposures (53%).

Source : Hathaway, James A. MD, MPH; Molenaar, Donald M. MD, MPH; Cassidy, Laura D. PhD, MS; Feeley, Timothy M. MS; Cummings, Barbara J. MS. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: January 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 1 - p 52–57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000019

Government backed nanotechnology products specification is published

Organizations designing, manufacturing, processing, importing and trading nanomaterials and nanotechnology-based products in the UK can now benefit from using PAS 137 Nanomaterials and nanotechnology based products – Guide to regulationand standards. The specification was developed by BSI, the business standards company and was sponsored by BIS (The Department for Business, Innovation & Skills).
The use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology-based products for applications relating to certain sectors, such as food and pharmaceuticals, is subject to existing regulations that apply to these sectors. How existing regulations cover other sectors is not clear and presents particular problems for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The aim of PAS 137 is to guide organizations in understanding regulations and standards in this area.

Source : http://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/about-bsi/media-centre/press-releases/2014/January-2014/Government-backed-nanotechnology-products-specification-is-published/

Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Risk of Pleural Mesothelioma, Lung Cancer, and Laryngeal Cancer in the Prospective Netherlands Cohort Study

Objective: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.
Methods: Using the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 58,279 men, aged 55 to 69 years), asbestos exposure was estimated by linkage to job-exposure matrices. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 132 pleural mesothelioma, 2324 lung cancer, and 166 laryngeal cancer cases were available.
Results: The multivariable-adjusted model showed overall positive associations between all levels of asbestos exposure and mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma and glottis cancer showed only a positive association after prolonged higher asbestos exposure (hazard ratio per 10 years increment, 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.93] and 1.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 2.80], respectively). There was no statistically significant interaction between asbestos and smoking.
Conclusions: Asbestos levels encountered at the lower end of the exposure distribution may be associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer.

Source : Offermans, Nadine S.M. MSc; Vermeulen, Roel; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; van den Brandt, Piet A. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: January 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 1 - p 6–19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000060

Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Risk of Breast Cancer in Western Australia

Objective: To evaluate current breast cancer risk due to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.
Methods: We analyzed data from the Western Australian population-based Breast Cancer Employment and Environment Study. The Breast Cancer Employment and Environment Study included 1205 cases with incident breast cancer during 2009–2011 and 1789 controls. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression models.
Results: There was a weak, not statistically significant association between breast cancer and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (OR = 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.57). The risk of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in women who were premenopausal at the time of interview was higher (OR = 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 6.03).
Conclusions: This study suggests that the risk of breast cancer is low at current levels of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, although the risk of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive cancer may be a concern.

Source : Buitenhuis, Wenny MSc; Fritschi, Lin PhD; Thomson, Allyson PhD; Glass, Deborah PhD; Heyworth, Jane PhD; Peters, Susan PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: December 2013 - Volume 55 - Issue 12 - p 1431–1435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182a7e692

Mica Dust and Pneumoconiosis

Example of a Pure Occupational Exposure in a Muscovite Milling Unit
Objective: We present pulmonary disorders of four employees who were exposed to high concentration of pure mica dust in a muscovite milling unit.
Method: All cases underwent traditional examinations with a dual-energy chest computed tomographic scan. An analysis of exhaled breath condensate by Raman microspectrometry and of mineralogical content of a lung biopsy was performed for one case.
Results: All cases showed bilateral micronodular ground glass opacities and mediastinal and hilar hyperdense lymph nodes consistent with the nodal sequestration of mineral particles. Histological analysis showed giant cell granulomas without typical silicotic nodule with high concentration of birefringent particles consistent with mica. Mica particles found in the exhaled breath condensate were identical to particles in ambient air at the company.
Conclusion: Occupational exposure to mica dust is responsible for diffuse infiltrative lung disease by overload processes.

Source : Hulo S, Cherot-Kornobis N, Edme JL, de Broucker V, Falgayrac G, Penel G, Legrand-Cattan K, Remy J, Sobaszek A. J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Dec;55(12):1469-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000004

The Risk of Radiation Exposure To Assisting Staff in Urological Procedures

A Literature Review
Fluoroscopy is an integral part of urology and is used for various procedures, such as extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, uretero-renoscopy, and ureteral stenting. This technique exposes the urologist and assistants to radiation, which is known to have deleterious effects. Although
there have been studies that determine the amount of exposure and the risks to the operating urologist, the risk to the assisting staff remains largely undetermined.
A literature review was conducted to determine the risk of radiation exposure during urological procedures, with emphasis on data concerning assisting staff. Data from nine major studies is presented in this article.

Source : Jindal, T. (2013). Urologic Nursing, 33(3).
http://www.suna.org/resources/journal/article333Epub1.pdf

Z180.1-F13 - Air comprimé respirable et systèmes connexes

Ce document constitue la cinquième édition de la CSA Z180.1, Air comprimé respirable et systèmes connexes. Il remplace les éditions antérieures publiées en 2000, 1985, 1978 et 1973.
Cette norme précise les exigences minimales qui, en l'absence de prescriptions contraires de l'autorité compétente, s'appliquent à la pureté de l'air des points de service des réseaux d'air comprimé respirable et aux systèmes utilisés pour sa production, son stockage et sa distribution.

Source : http://shop.csa.ca/fr/canada/respiratory-protection/z1801-13/invt/27010552013/?utm_term=z180.1-13&utm_content=html-textlink&utm_source=CSA+Standards+Newsletter&utm_campaign=5865b771cc-OHS_FR_December_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_4adf1fbe45-5865b771cc-285310937

Exposition aux mélanges de substances chimiques

Quels défis pour la recherche et l'évaluation des risques ?
L'agence sanitaire française -Anses- et les instituts allemand -BfR- et danois -DTU- ont organisé conjointement, les 10 et 11 décembre 2013, une conférence internationale sur les effets de l'exposition aux mélanges de substances chimiques et l'évaluation des risques, une préoccupation majeure pour de nombreux pays dans le monde et un véritable défi scientifique à relever. L'objectif de ces deux jours était de promouvoir les échanges de connaissances et de pratiques à ce sujet. Tous les participants se sont accordés sur la nécessité de continuer à mener des projets de recherche interdisciplinaires en commun, en Europe et à l'international.

Source : http://www.anses.fr/fr/content/exposition-aux-mélanges-de-substances-chimiques-quels-défis-pour-la-recherche-et-l-2

Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada

A descriptive study
Background Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer.
Methods We used data from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997–2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010.
Results Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data.
Interpretation Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health care providers is needed to ensure that people with work-related cancer are identified and file a claim for compensation.

Source : Ann Del Bianco, PhD, Paul A. Demers, PhD, Workplace Environment Health and Safety Reporter, October 2013, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 3607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20130015

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