2013-08-01 12:00 - Messages

Exposition aux dispositifs d'éclairage scénique : risque pour la santé des professionnels du spectacle vivant ou enregistré

La directive européenne 2006/25/CE, relative à l'exposition des travailleurs aux rayonnements optiques, prévoit l'évaluation des risques des situations de travail. Elle est particulièrement importante dans l'industrie des arts du spectacle où des expositions intentionnelles à des projecteurs peuvent être exigées pendant des périodes de l'ordre de 8 heures par jour. L'objectif de la présente étude était de fournir aux éclairagistes des informations, relatives aux risques associés aux projecteurs, afin de les aider à évaluer les risques a priori d'un plan lumière. Elle a consisté à déterminer les risques de 63 projecteurs différents puis à les répartir dans les 4 groupes de risques définis par la norme EN 62471, à calculer leur distance minimale d'exposition admissible, correspondant à l'utilisation de 1 et de 5 projecteurs pour une durée d'exposition journalière de 8 heures. Cette étude a mis en évidence que les projecteurs sont susceptibles de poser des problèmes sanitaires pour les salariés des arts du spectacle. Le schéma de classification proposé par la norme EN 62471 n'est pas suffisant pour évaluer les risques d'un plan lumière. De plus, la distance d'exposition et la durée d'exposition ne constituent pas des paramètres pertinents pour réduire les risques à des valeurs admissibles.

Source :
Salsi, S. , Barlier-Salsi, A.  Radioprotection, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/2013064, 20 p.
http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/recherche/etudes-publications-communications/doc/publication.html?refINRS=C.4/1.016/P2012-196

 

Méthanisation de déchets issus de l’élevage, de l’agriculture et de l’agroalimentaire

La valorisation des déchets et le développement d'énergies renouvelables sont des enjeux environnementaux d'actualité. La méthanisation répond à ce double objectif. Les déchets issus notamment de l'agriculture (effluents d'élevage, végétaux...) et de l'agroalimentaire permettent de produire du biogaz valorisable.
Toutefois, les procédés de méthanisation mettant en oeuvre ces déchets génèrent des risques particuliers et nécessitent donc des mesures de prévention adaptées. Ce document expose les principaux risques liés à la mise en oeuvre d'une unité de méthanisation et les prescriptions de sécurité associées, à l'intention de l'ensemble des acteurs de la filière (conception, exploitation, maintenance...).

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/ED/TI-ED-6153/ed6153.pdf

 

354 665 travailleurs exposés aux rayonnements ionisants en 2012 - France

L’IRSN publie son bilan 2012 des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants portant sur la surveillance de 354 665 travailleurs. Comme chaque année, l’IRSN vient de publier le bilan des résultats de la surveillance des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants, pour l’ensemble des activités civiles et de défense (secteurs privé et public). Les résultats portent sur 354 665,travailleurs, en augmentation de 3% par rapport à 2011. Ils travaillent dans les domaines médical (et vétérinaire), nucléaire, industriel non nucléaire, ou encore dans le domaine de la recherche. Globalement le bilan est positif avec une diminution de la dose collective de 3% par rapport à 2011. Mais des différences importantes sont relevées dans les doses reçues selon les secteurs d’activités.
Ainsi, le domaine médical et vétérinaire, qui regroupe la majorité des effectifs surveillés (62%), présente une dose individuelle moyenne calculée sur l’effectif exposé de 0,49 mSv, alors que les travailleurs du nucléaire et de l’industrie non nucléaire, représentant 30% des effectifs suivis, reçoivent des doses individuelles moyennes plus élevées (respectivement 1,16 et 1,54 mSv). Dans le domaine de la recherche, les doses individuelles restent en moyenne inférieures à 0,5 mSv.

Source : http://www.irsn.fr/FR/expertise/rapports_expertise/Documents/radioprotection/IRSN_bilan_annuel_travailleurs_2012.pdf

Core temperature and heart rate response to repeated bouts of firefighting activities

During live-fire firefighting operations and training evolutions, firefighters often consume multiple cylinders of air and continue to wear their personal protective equipment even after fire suppression activities have ceased. However, most studies have only reported core temperature changes during short-term firefighting activities and have shown a very modest increase in core temperature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate core temperature and heart rate (HR) during repeated bouts of firefighting activity over ∼3 h. The results of this study show that core temperatures increase by an average of 1.9°C - to a larger magnitude than previously reported - and continue to increase during subsequent work cycles (38.4 vs. 38.7) even after long breaks of more than 30 min. The rate of core temperature increase during work continues to increase later in the training exercise (from 0.036 to 0.048°C/min), increasing the risk for exertional heat stress particularly if long-duration firefighting activity is required at these later times. Practitioner Summary: To date, core temperature and HR changes during firefighting have been reported for short-term studies, which may significantly underestimate the physiological burden of typical firefighting activities. Firefighter core temperatures are shown to increase to a larger magnitude than previously observed and the rate of rise in core temperature increases during subsequent firefighting activities.

Source : Horn GP, Blevins S, Fernhall B, Smith DL. Ergonomics 2013; ePub. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2013.818719

Occupational carbon monoxide fatalities in the US from unintentional non-fire related exposures, 1992-2008

OBJECTIVE: To analyze characteristics of, and trends in, work-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities in the US. METHODS: Records of unintentional, non-fire related fatalities from CO exposure were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Integrated Management Information System for years 1992-2008 and analyzed separately. RESULTS: The average number of annual CO fatalities was 22 (standard deviation = 8). Fatality rates were highest among workers aged ≥65, males, Hispanics, winter months, the Midwest, and the Fishing, Hunting, and Trapping industry subsector. Self-employed workers accounted for 28% of all fatalities. Motor vehicles were the most frequent source of fatal CO exposure, followed by heating systems and generators. CONCLUSIONS: CO has been the most frequent cause of occupational fatality due to acute inhalation, and has shown no significant decreasing trend since 1992. The high number of fatalities from motor vehicles warrants further investigation.

Source : Henn SA, Bell JL, Sussell AL, Konda S. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2013; ePub http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22226

1-Bromopropane

1-Bromopropane (1-BP), also known as n-propyl bromide (nPB), is an organic solvent used in a number of commercial and industrial applications. 1-BP may be found in products used in vapor and immersion degreasing operations for cleaning metal, plastics, electronic and optical components; in adhesive spray applications; and in dry cleaning operations. 1-BP may also be a component of some aerosol spray products.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) last blogged about 1-BP in December 2008. Since that time, more data have become available concerning 1-BP; these additional data are helpful to employers, workers, safety and health professionals, and any others who are interested in occupational health issues related to 1-BP. Yesterday, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and NIOSH released a Hazard Alert that is a useful source of current information related to 1-BP workplace exposure and appropriate protections.

Source : http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2013/08/01/1bp-2/

Occupational Hygiene implications of processing waste at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs): Exposure to bioaerosol and dust - RR977

This report presents the findings of a study to investigate exposures to dust and its microbiological components amongst workers employed at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs). The report shows the potential for workers to be exposed to general airborne dust above the level where it is considered a substance hazardous to health (10 mg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA). Also, there is the potential for exposure to fungi and bacteria, as well as endotoxins, which are agents known to have harmful effects on human health. Endotoxin exposures may be at levels greater than the health-based limit identified by the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety of 90 EU/m3.

The report concludes that the health implications of employee exposure to dust and bioaerosols was not fully considered at the sites visited. This was associated with a lack of corporate occupational health strategies and a failure to adequately manage health and hygiene provision. Areas for improvement identified included: undertaking suitable and sufficient risk assessments; adoption of well implemented, risk-based health surveillance programmes; and the provision of adequate hygiene facilities.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr977.pdf

 

 

Copper ionisation systems – What is the issue over copper ionisation in legionella control?

For users and suppliers of water treatment systems that use elemental copper for legionella control ie copper ionisation systems – it is important to read the updated information relating to the application for essential use derogation.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/faqs.htm#silver-copper-systems?eban=rss-

Work-related allergic respiratory disease and asthma in spice mill workers is associated with inhalant chili pepper and garlic exposures

Objective The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for allergic respiratory disease in spice mill workers. Methods A cross-sectional study of 150 workers used European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaires, Phadiatop, serum specific IgE (garlic, chili pepper), spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Personal air samples (n=62) collected from eight-hour shifts were analysed for inhalable particulate mass. Novel immunological assays quantified airborne garlic and chili pepper allergen concentrations. Results Mean dust particulate mass (geometric mean (GM)=2.06 mg/m3), chili pepper (GM=0.44 µg/m3) and garlic allergen (GM=0.24 µg/m3) were highest in blending and were highly correlated. Workers' mean age was 33 years, 71% were men, 46% current smokers and 45% atopic. Spice-dust-related asthma-like symptoms (17%) were common, as was garlic sensitisation (19%), with 13% being monosensitised and 6% cosensitised to chili pepper. Airflow reversibility and FeNO>50 ppb was present in 4% and 8% of workers respectively. Spice-dust-related ocular-nasal (OR 2.40, CI 1.09 to 5.27) and asthma-like (OR 4.15, CI 1.09 to 15.72) symptoms were strongly associated with airborne garlic in the highly exposed (>0.235 µg/m3) workers. Workers monosensitised to garlic were more likely to be exposed to higher airborne chili pepper (>0.92 µg/m3) (OR 11.52, CI 1.17 to 113.11) than garlic allergens (OR 5.08, CI 1.17 to 22.08) in this mill. Probable asthma was also more strongly associated with chili pepper than with garlic sensitisation. Conclusions Exposure to inhalable spice dust (GM >2.06 mg/m3) containing garlic (GM>0.24 µg/m³) and chili pepper (GM >0.44 µg/m3) allergens increase the risk of allergic respiratory disease and asthma.

Source : Anita van der Walt, Tanusha Singh, Roslynn Baatjies, Andreas Ludwig Lopata, Mohamed Fareed Jeebhay. Occup Environ Med 2013;70:7 446-452. Published Online First: 14 March 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2012-101163

 

OSHA Focuses on Isocyanates Via National Emphasis Program

OSHA has announced a new National Emphasis Program for occupational exposure to isocyanates that will focus outreach and inspections on specific hazards in the manufacturing, maritime and construction industries.
OSHA's new National Emphasis Program for isocyanates will target the serious health effects from occupational exposure to isocyanates. OSHA develops national emphasis programs to focus outreach efforts and inspections on specific hazards in an industry for a 3-year period. Through this NEP, OSHA will focus on workplaces in manufacturing, construction and maritime industries that use isocyanate compounds in an effort to reduce occupational illnesses and deaths.

 Source : https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=24273

Determinants of Respirable Silica Exposure in Stone Countertop Fabrication: A Preliminary Study

A preliminary study of personal exposure to respirable quartz was conducted in four shops that used a variety of wet and dry methods to fabricate countertops from granite and quartz-containing synthetic stone-like materials. Full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures exceeded the ACGIH threshold limit value of 0.025 mg/m3 for all workers who used dry fabrication methods, even for very limited time, during any part of the work shift (n = 15 person-days). The geometric mean of exposures for workers who used dry methods extensively was about 1 mg/m3 (n = 12 person-days). Workers who operated only automated or remotely controlled stone cutting or shaping equipment had calculated TWA exposures of approximately 0.02 mg/m3 (n = 3 person-days). Task-specific geometric mean exposures for various wet and dry manual operations were ranked based on estimated concentrations extracted from multi-task partial-shift sample results using a linear algebra procedure. Limited use of dry methods was observed in shops that had previously reported using only wet methods. These results suggest that even shops that report using only wet methods might, in fact, resort to brief use of dry methods for specific operations. Therefore, there may be reason for concern over potential overexposure to respirable quartz in all stone countertop shops.

Source : Phillips ML, Johnson DL, Johnson AC.J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013;10(7):368-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2013.789706.

Guidance for manufactured nanomaterials from the Committee

The German Committee on Hazardous Substances (AGS) has issued Announcement 527 “Manufactured Nanomaterials”. The objective of the Announcement is to give recommendations for the protection of the safety and health of workers handling substances, mixtures, or articles consisting of, or containing, manufactured nanomaterials. The basis is the 2012 European Commission recommendation on the definition of the term ‘nanomaterial‘. Natural and incidental nanomaterials are not considered. Likewise, it does not address use by consumers.
Though the announcement is indicative and complements existing technical rules, it gives indications for information gathering, requirements on nanomaterial-specific information, such as surface characteristic and particle size distribution, and defines biopersistence and substitution requirements, and protective measures, as well as disposal and efficiency checks, and finally maintenance and waste disposal.

Source:
 https://osha.europa.eu/en/news/de-guidance-for-manufactured-nanomaterials-from-the-committee?sourceid=rss&utm_source=home&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=rssfeeds

http://www.baua.de/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/TRGS/pdf/Announcement-527.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

Occupational Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica During Hydraulic Fracturing

This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica (“frac sand”) is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing using silica sand should evaluate their operations to determine the potential for worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica and implement controls as necessary to protect workers.

Source: Esswein EJ, Breitenstein M, Snawder J, Kiefer M, Sieber WK. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013;10(7):347-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2013.788352.

 

De nouveaux éclairages sur les pesticides

Une expertise collective de l'Inserm apporte de nouveaux éclairages sur les risques liés aux produits pesticides. L'analyse de la littérature scientifique internationale met en évidence des liens entre l'exposition professionnelle aux pesticides et la survenue de certaines pathologies chez l'adulte : maladie de Parkinson, cancer de la prostate, lymphomes, myélomes. L'étude montre également que les expositions intervenant au cours de la grossesse peuvent perturber le développement de l'enfant à naître.

Source : Le communiqué de l'Inserm http://www.inserm.fr/actualites/rubriques/actualites-societe/pesticides-effets-sur-la-sante-une-expertise-collective-de-l-inserm

EU-New Directive to protect EU workers from harmful electromagnetic fields

The Directive clarifies the definitions of adverse effects on health, introduces an updated exposure limits system (frequencies that are recognised as having harmful effects on the human cardiovascular system or the central nervous system), as well as a number of provisions to make it easier for employers to carry out the risk assessments required by law. The directive was published in the Official Journal on 29 June 2013 and has to be transposed into national legislation by 1 July 2016. As employers are obliged to carry out risk evaluations, the proposal introduces detailed provisions to ensure a proportionate approach as well as to ensure adequate preventive measures to reduce the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. The proposal requires employers to give exposed workers and their representatives the necessary information and training, particularly relating to the outcome of the risk assessment, the measures taken by the employer, safe working practices, the detection of adverse effects and the circumstances in which workers are entitled to health checks. The proposal also foresees specific provisions for :

  • workers maintaining high tension lines,
  • the medical magnetic resonance imaging sector,
  • the armed forces,
  • workers who wear an Active Implantable Medical Device (AIMD),
  • pregnant women.

Source :
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:179:0001:0021:EN:PDF
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:179:0001:0021:FR:PDF
 

Une étude de l’IRSST sur les risques liés au mélange de plusieurs substances chimiques

Lors de déversements accidentels de substances chimiques dans l'environnement, que ce soit dans le cas d'incidents routiers ou ferroviaires (transport de matières dangereuses), ou encore d'accidents industriels, des travailleurs, des secouristes, des pompiers et même la population générale peuvent être exposés simultanément, sur de courtes périodes, à d'importantes concentrations de plusieurs substances chimiques. Dans de telles situations, une exposition simultanée à plusieurs substances peut induire des risques plus importants pour un travailleur que s'il est exposé successivement à chacun de ces polluants considérés individuellement. Il est donc important, comme le stipulent l' American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists  (ACGIH) et le Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail (RSST) du Québec, d'examiner les effets combinés des substances lorsque deux ou plusieurs d'entre elles agissent sur un même système de l'organisme. L'objectif de ce projet était de concevoir un outil d'aide à la décision capable de prédire l'additivité des effets aigus d'un mélange de substances. La base de données créée rapporte les effets délétères de 268 substances chimiques. Les informations recueillies portent, d'une part, sur les organes cibles et, d'autre part, sur les effets sur ces organes. À partir de cette base, un utilitaire a été conçu pour calculer un indice d'exposition mixte aiguë en fonction des valeurs limites d'exposition « Acute Exposure Guideline Levels » (AEGL) du National Research Council américain. Ces valeurs ont été établies en fonction de la durée d'exposition (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h et 8 h) et de trois niveaux de toxicité (AEGL-1, AEGL-2 et AEGL-3). Ainsi, l'utilitaire permet d'estimer l'additivité toxicologique selon des concentrations et des durées d'exposition données.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-770.pdf

Nanoparticules : Efficacité des filtres de protection respiratoire

Afin de minimiser l'exposition de travailleurs aux nanoparticules, une équipe de chercheurs a conçu une méthodologie permettant d'évaluer l'efficacité des appareils de protection respiratoire (APR) en reproduisant en laboratoire les conditions d'exposition à des particules de différentes tailles. À l'aide d'un banc d'essai expérimental, équipé d'un dispositif d'épuration d'air, les scientifiques ont analysé le rendement des filtres N95, soit ceux le plus couramment utilisés, en plus d'étudier l'effet de l'écoulement de l'air et de la taille des particules sur la pénétration de celles-ci à travers l'APR, ainsi que l'effet de la durée d'utilisation et de l'humidité relative sur l'efficacité de la filtration. Les filtres ont été testés à des débits d'air élevés, soit des débits constants de 85, 135, 270 et 360 litres d'air par minute.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-776.pdf

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