2013-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products

Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a ‘dry' and ‘wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

Source: Ronald L. Pearson, Perry W. Logan, Anita M. Kore, Constance M. Strom, Lisa M. Brosseau, and Richard L. Kingston. Ann Occup Hyg, 2013, vol. 57, no 6, p. 758-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mes110

WHO Launches Chemical Risk Assessment Network

Chemicals play a vital part in our daily life. Chemicals can also cause unintended harm to human health. More than 25% of the global burden of disease is linked to environmental factors, including chemicals exposures. The production and use of chemicals continues to increase worldwide, particularly in rapidly developing economies. Enhanced global efforts are needed to share expertise, to assess, and to manage the risks associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals. There is a need to identify knowledge gaps and emerging issues, and to provide a forum for scientific exchange and collaboration on risk assessment.

To support these efforts, WHO has today announced the launch of a network of leading risk assessment institutions from around the world, to improve chemical risk assessment globally. The network will scale up action and facilitate sustainable interaction between institutions on chemical risk assessment. The network is a voluntary, collaborative initiative.

Source : http://www.who.int/ipcs/networks/ranetwork/en/index.html

Opportunities for cancer prevention: trends in the use and release of carcinogens in Massachusetts

The report draws on 20 years of data collected from industries reporting to the Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act program to assess trends in the use and release of chemicals associated with cancer. The analysis shows that reported use and releases of carcinogens among Massachusetts companies have decreased dramatically over time. Reported use declined 32% from 1990 to 2010, and reported releases declined 93% from 1991 to 2010. The report also groups the chemicals by their links with eleven specific types of cancer: bladder; brain and central nervous system; breast; kidney; leukemia; liver; lung; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; pancreas; prostate; and testis. After adjusting for changes in chemical reporting requirements, reductions in use and environmental releases were observed for all these groups of carcinogens.

Source :
http://www.turi.org/Our_Work/Toxic_Chemicals/Trends_in_the_Use_and_Release_of_Carcinogens_in_Massachusetts
http://www.turi.org/content/download/7917/138177/file/Carcinogens%20Report%20Executive%20Summary.pdf

The use of Nanomaterials in UK Universities: an overview of occupational health and safety

HSE wishes to increase its knowledge and understanding of the occupational use and manufacture of engineered nanoparticles in the UK. It has worked with the UK NanoSafety Group to gain an overview of the work with nanomaterials in a small number of UK universities. METHODOLOGY:  HSE, working with The UK NanoSafety Group, distributed questionnaires in the form of ‘feedback' forms to university health and safety officers who, in turn, distributed them to various research groups working with nanomaterials within the universities. During the summer of 2011 visits were made by a specialist inspector (occupational hygienist) to 9 universities across the UK and within these universities a total of 45 research groups, to see, at first hand, how they were controlling nanomaterials. Seven of the universities visited had returned feedback forms. During these visits the researchers, department heads and health and safety officers were questioned, including using some of the questions from the feedback form to validate the response received. The risk/COSHH assessments and training records were accessed, and the critical controls such as engineering and personal protective equipment (PPE) were examined. Based on reference to HSE guidance and expert opinion, the adequacy of these components of health and safety were assessed for each research group visited.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/nanotechnology/nano-survey.pdf

Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2001–2008

World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers were exposed to a complex mix of pollutants and carcinogens. Cancers among 20,984 consented participants in the WTC Health Program were identified through linkage to state tumor registries in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare cancers diagnosed in responders to predicted numbers for the general population. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate associations with degree of exposure.

Source : http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/6/ehp.1205894.pdf

Gestion sécuritaire de l'amiante - Guide explicatif sur les nouvelles dispositions réglementaires

Au Québec, il est possible de trouver des matériaux et des produits qui contiennent de l’amiante dans les composants de construction, les installations et les équipements de tous les types de bâtiments, qu’ils soient industriels, commerciaux, publics ou résidentiels. Il est aussi possible d’en trouver dans les
ouvrages de génie civil. Afin d’assurer la santé et l’intégrité physique des travailleurs, de nouvelles dispositions réglementaires relatives à la gestion sécuritaire de l’amiante sont en vigueur depuis le 6 juin 2013.

Ce guide est un outil de référence pour faciliter la compréhension des dispositions réglementaires sur la gestion sécuritaire de l'amiante.

Source : http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/200/Documents/DC200_1571web.pdf

OECD Guidance Document on Quantitative Methods for Evaluating the Activity of Microbicides used on Hard Non-Porous Surfaces

The OECD Biocides Programme and Test Guidelines Programme have been working together for several years to develop test methods for assessing the efficacy of biocidal products. A Guidance Document on microbicides* efficacy testing was issued in June 2013 and published in the series on Biocides (document No. 6) and series on Testing and Assessment (document No. 187). It describes quantitative methods for evaluating the activity of microbicides used on hard non-porous surfaces. Efficacy data are part of the regulatory requirements that manufacturers/ applicants have to comply with concerning the authorisation and the placing on the market of their biocidal products.

Source : http://www.oecd.org/env/ehs/testing/evaluating-the-activity-of-microbicides-used-on-hard-non-porous-surfaces.htm

Gestion sécuritaire de l'amiante - Guide explicatif sur les nouvelles dispositions réglementaires

Au Québec, il est possible de trouver des matériaux et des produits qui contiennent de l'amiante dans les composants de construction, les installations et les équipements de tous les types de bâtiments, qu'ils soient industriels, commerciaux, publics ou résidentiels. Il est aussi possible d'en trouver dans les
ouvrages de génie civil. Afin d'assurer la santé et l'intégrité physique des travailleurs, de nouvelles dispositions réglementaires relatives à la gestion sécuritaire de l'amiante sont en vigueur depuis le 6 juin 2013.

Ce guide est un outil de référence pour faciliter la compréhension des dispositions réglementaires sur la gestion sécuritaire de l'amiante. 

Source : http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/200/Documents/DC200_1571web.pdf

Le Centre canadien d’hygiène et de sécurité au travail lance la version CANWrite adaptée au SGH

Le Centre canadien d'hygiène et de sécurité au travail (CCHST) a annoncé le lancement de sa toute nouvelle version de CANWrite. Cette dernière version de CANWrite repose sur la version du Système général harmonisé de classification et d'étiquetage des produits chimiques (SGH) mise en œuvre conformément à la norme HazCom 2012 des É.-U. La version CANWrite adaptée au SGH permettra de produire des fiches de données de sécurité (FDS) conformes au SGH de l'OSHA et des fiches signalétiques (FS) conformes au SIMDUT.  Les clients pourront rédiger et mettre à jour des FS/FDS de qualité qui satisfont aux exigences actuelles de la version SIMDUT canadienne et de l'OSHA des É.-U. Pour obtenir de plus amples renseignements sur la version CANWrite adaptée au SGH, veuillez vous reporter au site Web http://www.cchst.ca/products/canwrite/.

Source : http://cm.cchst.ca/newsroom/news_releases/20130626-11

23 nouvelles fiches sur les effets des produits chimiques sur la reproduction : nouveautés de la base Demeter

La base de données Demeter de l’Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) intègre 23 nouvelles fiches concernant des produits chimiques et leurs effets sur la reproduction, portant à plus de 130 le nombre de références qu’elle contient.
La base de données Demeter (Documents pour l’évaluation médicale des produits toxiques vis-à-vis de la reproduction) fournit une synthèse de l’état des connaissances sur les dangers de plus de 130 produits chimiques. Ces fiches sont destinées à un public médical. Les médecins du travail en sont la principale cible ; certains chapitres leur sont spécifiquement destinés. Elles peuvent être également utilisées par tout médecin, notamment ceux en charge de la surveillance des grossesses ou des spécialistes de la fertilité. Elles permettent au médecin d’évaluer le risque dû à l’exposition en fonction de la période à laquelle elle s’est produite (avant la conception, pendant la grossesse ou l’allaitement) et proposent un ensemble de conduites à tenir pour en diminuer les effets.
Les fiches Demeter sont rédigées par des toxicologues et validées par un comité de lecture regroupant des experts de diverses spécialités.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/bdd/Base-Demeter.html

Short, fine and WHO asbestos fibers in the lungs of Quebec workers with an asbestos-related disease

Background The possible role of short asbestos fibers in the development of asbestos-related diseases and availability of lung fiber burden data prompted this study on the relationships between fiber characteristics and asbestos-related diseases among compensated workers. Methods Data collected between 1988 and 2007 for compensation purposes were used; lung asbestos fibers content of 123 Quebec workers are described according to socio-demographic characteristics, job histories and diseases (asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer). Results Most workers (85%) presented chrysotile fibers in their lungs, and respectively 76%, 64%, and 43% had tremolite, amosite, and crocidolite. Half of the total fibers were short, 30% were thin fibers and 20% corresponded to the World Health Organization definition of fibers (length ≥ 5 µm, diameter ≥ 0.2 and <3 µm). Chrysotile fibers were still observed in the lungs of workers 30 years or more after last exposure. Conclusion Our findings stress the relevance of considering several dimensional criteria to characterize health risks associated with asbestos inhalation.

Source: Adib, G., Labrèche, F., De Guire, L., Dion, C. and Dufresne, A. (2013), Short, fine and WHO asbestos fibers in the lungs of Quebec workers with an asbestos-related disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22180

 

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