2013-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene and the risk of lymphoma, liver, and kidney cancer in four Nordic countries

Objectives Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Perchloroethylene (PER) are two chlorinated solvents that are applied widely as degreasers of metal parts, and in dry cleaning and other applications. In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified TCE as carcinogenic to humans and PER as probably carcinogenic to humans. We explored exposure–response relations for TCE and PER and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and cancers of the kidney and liver in the Nordic Occupational Cancer cohort. Methods The cohort was set up by linking occupational information from censuses to national cancer registry data using personal identity codes in use in all Nordic countries. Country, time period, and job-specific exposure estimates were generated for TCE, PER and potentially confounding occupational exposures with a job-exposure matrix. A conditional logistic regression was conducted for exposure groups as well as for continuous cumulative exposure. Results HRs for liver cancer, NHL and MM but not kidney cancer were slightly elevated in groups with high exposure to PER (compared to occupationally unexposed subjects). HRs for liver cancer and NHL also increased with increasing continuous exposure to PER. We did not observe evidence for an association between exposure to TCE and NHL, MM or liver and kidney cancer. Conclusions Although this study was subject to limitations related to the low prevalence of exposure to PER and TCE in the Nordic population and a limited exposure assessment strategy, we observed some evidence indicative of an excess risk of cancer of the liver and NHL in subjects exposed to PER.

Source :
Jelle Vlaanderen, Kurt Straif, Eero Pukkala, Timo Kauppinen, Pentti Kyyrönen, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Kristina Kjaerheim, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Johnni Hansen, Pär Sparén, Elisabete Weiderpass, Occup Environ Med 2013;70:6 393-401 Published Online First: 27 February 2013

Nouvelle mise à jour de la base Biotox : Une aide à la surveillance des salariés exposés aux produits chimiques

Véritable outil pratique à destination des médecins du travail et des laboratoires, la base de données Biotox vient d’être actualisée. Objectif : contribuer à une meilleure surveillance des salariés exposés aux produits chimiques. Utilisée par les médecins du travail et les laboratoires pour la surveillance biologique des salariés exposés à certains produits chimiques, la base de données Biotox(http://www.inrs.fr/biotox) se renouvelle. Chaque année, les informations sont mises à jour dans le cadre, entre autre, d’une revue de la littérature internationale. Les connaissances relatives à la surveillance biologique des expositions aux produits chimiques évoluent vite et il est donc nécessaire de faire évoluer Biotox régulièrement. Lancé en 1992 en version papier, le projet Biotox a évolué en 2003 vers une base de données en accès libre sur le site Internet de l’INRS. Cette base propose notamment des fiches classées par substances chimiques. Celles-ci précisent le numéro CAS du produit concerné, sa famille chimique d’appartenance, les données toxicocinétiques et les valeurs biologiques de référence.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/nouvelle-mise-a-jour-base-biotox.html

Exposure to hexavalent chromium, nickel and cadmium compounds in the electroplating industry - RR963

This research was conducted by HSE in partnership with the Surface Engineering Association (SEA). The aim was to investigate whether repeat Biological Monitoring (BM) over a period of time could be used to help drive sustainable improvements in exposure control. Fifty-three companies engaged in nickel, hexavalent chromium and/or cadmium electroplating were visited. An occupational hygiene assessment of relevant tasks and exposure controls was conducted at each visit. BM (post shift urine sampling) was used to quantitatively assess nickel, chromium and (where used) cadmium exposures. Other measurements, such as levels of contamination of worker’s hands and workplace surfaces with nickel and/or chrome, were also made to provide further information on exposure paths. A detailed insight is provided into nickel, hexavalent chromium and cadmium exposures in electroplating. The extensive measurement programme employed allows identification of a number of tasks and worker groups with potential for exposure and provides a clear picture of the standard of exposure control achieved. This provides an improved understanding of exposure routes and allows exposure control to be better targeted. Sustainable statistically significant reductions in exposure were achieved at the companies with the highest initial levels of urinary nickel and/or chromium. This was as a direct result of developing a better understanding of exposure pathways and implementing repeat Biological Monitoring (BM) over the lifetime of the project to provide evidence of exposure control. Reductions were in the range 30 to 40% for nickel, and 20 to 30% for chromium.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr963.pdf

Guidance Document for Exposure Assessment Based on Exposure Assessment Based on Environmental Monitoring

This document provides guidance for performing an exposure assessment – for humans and the environment – based on environmental monitoring data. It covers topics such as environmental levels and distribution of contaminants, ways of using monitoring data in exposure assessments for differing purposes, the collection of data, quality of monitoring activities, as well as several examples of data compilation in member countries and their use in exposure assessment.

Source : http://search.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2013)7&doclanguage=en

Programme de prévention - Expositions au sang chez les travailleurs de la santé

Ce programme constitue un cadre de référence accessible à partir du site Internet de l'ASSTSAS. Il offre un programme divisé en six catégorie et de nombreux outils qui peuvent être adaptés au contexte particulier et à la taille de chaque établissement. Le contenu de ce programme est basé sur l'expérience accumulée par l'ASSTSAS et sur les données probantes recueillies auprès d'organismes comparables et d'organismes publics, principalement en Amérique du Nord. Les principales publications consultées figurent dans la bibliographie.

Source : http://www.asstsas.qc.ca/dossiers-thematiques/risques-biologiques-infections/prevention-des-expositions-au-sang-anciennement-piqures-daiguille/programme-de-prevention-expositions-au-sang-chez-les-travailleurs-de-la-sante.html

Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

Background: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment–based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. Objectives: We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. Methods: We identified available risk assessment–based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates.
Conclusions: Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of < 1; however, some (including acrylamide, dioxin-like chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10–4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research.

Source : Environ Health Perspect 121:287–294 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205740

The Pesticide Users’ Health Study: An analysis of mortality (1987-2005) - RR958

The Pesticide Users Health Study (PUHS) was established so as to monitor the health of men and women who are certified to apply pesticides on a commercial basis under the 1986 Control of Pesticides Regulations. An analysis of deaths occurring between 1987 and 2005 among members of the PUHS is presented in this report. There were 1,628 deaths among 59,085 male and 3,875 female pesticide users during the follow-up period. Compared with the population of Great Britain, the pesticide users had lower than expected mortality from all causes, and in particular from all cancers combined, cancers of the digestive organs, cancers of the respiratory system, and non-malignant diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, and of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. There was some evidence of excess deaths from multiple myeloma in men and women, and possibly also from testicular cancer. Deaths from all external causes (accidents and injuries) combined were lower than expected when compared with the general population. However in men, deaths from ‘injury by machinery’ were higher than expected. Continuing recruitment into the PUHS will enable HSE to monitor the health of these pesticide users as regulations and exposures change over time.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr958.pdf


OSHA Releases Booklet for Responders Encountering Combustible Dust

OSHA has issued a new booklet, "Firefighting Precautions at Facilities with Combustible Dust," to aid emergency responders who may face fires and explosions caused by combustible dust. The primary purpose of this document is to protect emergency responders from harm by giving them a framework for gathering the necessary information prior to an emergency and converting it into safe operating procedures. In this document, emergency responders include firefighters, fire
brigade members, hazardous materials teams, and others who might be called upon to respond when a fire or explosion occurs. This document is not intended to provide specific strategies or tactics to be used during emergency responses. It does, however, discuss some tactics that should be considered. The information
presented here and collected during pre-incident surveys should be used to train all emergency responders on how to properly handle incidents at facilities with combustible dusts

Source : http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA_3644.pdf

Gérer le risque amiante dans le cas du traitement des déchets : guide de prévention

L’INRS publie une nouvelle version de son guide de prévention à destination des professionnels chargés du traitement des déchets d’amiante. Ce document apporte des éléments d’aide à l’évaluation des risques et au choix des protections adaptées Il met à jour les aspects réglementaires suite à la refonte des règles de gestion des déchets d’amiante. Ce guide s’adresse aux gestionnaires et personnels des déchèteries et des installations d’élimination des déchets amiantés. Il rappelle :

•Les obligations des chefs d’entreprise en matière de prévention des risques liés à l’amiante fixées par le Code du travail, le code de l’environnement et la réglementation sur le transport des matières dangereuses (ADR).
•Les règles de gestion des déchets amiantés (emballage, conditionnement, transport, stockage – inertage, documents de traçabilité - BSDA)
•Les grandes catégories de déchets amiantés et les filières d’élimination correspondantes.
•L’évaluation des niveaux d’empoussièrement et la vérification du respect de la valeur limite d’exposition professionnelle (VLEP)
•Les mesures générales de prévention (organisation du travail, mesures de protection collective et individuelle, formation, hygiène)
•Les bonnes pratiques pour éviter les expositions lors de la manutention, le dépôt, la reprise et le regroupement des déchets.
•Le rôle du gardien lors de la réception des déchets
•La marche à suivre pour réceptionner, décharger et stocker les déchets d’amiante et pour gérer les situations accidentelles.
Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/ED/TI-ED-6028/ed6028.pdf


Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers : Current Intelligence Bulletin 65

This NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin (1) reviews the animal and other toxicological data relevant to assessing the potential non-malignant adverse respiratory effects of CNT and CNF, (2) provides a quantitative risk assessment based on animal dose-response data, (3) proposes a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 1 μg/m3 elemental carbon as a respirable mass 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentration, and (4) describes strategies for controlling workplace exposures and implementing a medical surveillance program. The NIOSH REL is expected to reduce the risk for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis.

Source :

Industrial Production and Professional Application of Manufactured Nanomaterials-Enabled End Products in Dutch Industries: Potential for Exposure

Background: In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. Methods: A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). Results: The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

Source : Cindy Bekker, Derk H. Brouwer, Erik Tielemans, and Anjoeka Pronk.  Ann Occup Hyg (2013) 57(3): 314-327 first published online October 23, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mes072

Le bisphénol A en question

Un récent avis de l'Anses met en garde sur les risques potentiels liés au bisphénol A (BPA) pour les enfants à naître. L'exposition des femmes enceintes pourrait en effet induire des modifications de la structure de la glande mammaire du fœtus susceptibles de favoriser l'apparition de cancers du sein. L'alimentation constitue la principale source d'exposition mais les travaux ont également permis d'identifier des situations d'exposition professionnelle notamment lors de la manipulation des papiers thermiques (tickets de caisse, reçus de cartes bancaires…). L'INRS propose par ailleurs un « questions/réponses » qui présente les principales informations sur le BPA au travail : utilisations, risques, expositions, mesures de prévention…

Source : http://www.anses.fr/sites/default/files/documents/CHIM2009sa0331Ra-0.pdf 

The Pesticide Users Health Study - An analysis of cancer incidence (1987-2004)

The Pesticide Users Health Study (PUHS) consists of pesticide users certified under the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (COPR). This report presents cancer incidence experienced by pesticide users in the PUHS, and compares this to the rates observed in the national population.

Altogether, there were 1,720 registered cancers among 62,960 pesticide users between 1987 and 2004. Men in the PUHS had reduced overall cancer incidence compared to the national population. In particular, incidence of cancer of the lip, oral cavity & pharynx, cancer of the digestive organs, cancer of the respiratory system, and cancer of the urinary system were significantly below the numbers expected. Incidence of cancer of the testis and multiple myeloma were elevated among men in the PUHS, and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer was elevated among both males and females.

The Health & Safety Executive should continue to recruit and follow-up pesticide users in the PUHS in order to monitor their health. Information collected through future research could be used to enhance analysis of cancer incidence among members of the PUHS, and control for potential confounding factors.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr956.pdf


The Pesticide Users' Health Study - Survey of pesticide usage

The Pesticide Users Health Study is a cohort of nearly 66,000 commercial pesticide users, certified under the 1986 Control of Pesticide Regulations, who had agreed to participate in HSE’s programme of research into their health. A survey to assess the history of pesticide usage among members of this cohort, and to assess the level of self-reported ill health associated with pesticide exposure, was undertaken in two waves during 2004 and 2006. The response rate (14%) to the questionnaire was very low; this may be partly attributable to a general decrease in survey response rates and to the fact that the main wave of the survey was undertaken at a particularly busy time of year. Respondents listed nearly 2,500 unique trade names and 677 active ingredients. The most common areas of pesticide usage were amenity weed control and the treatment of cereals. Individuals who were often exposed to pesticide concentrate were four times more likely to report 'ill health' associated with pesticide use than those exposed to diluted products; additionally individuals who had used pesticides in jobs lasting more than 15 years were more likely to report 'ill health' than those working in jobs lasting less than 5 years.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr957.pdf

Advisory: Heat Stress and Type 3 Asbestos Operations

In Ontario, asbestos remediation requires full-body protective coveralls, head coverings, and other personal protective equipment such as respirators, gloves, and boots. These types of protective clothing can put workers at increased risk of developing heat-related illnesses. The Insulators Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee, in partnership with IHSA, has developed a Health and Safety Advisory on this issue

Source : http://www.ihsa.ca/images/pfiles/532_W152.pdf

Amiante : base de données de fournisseurs et produits

Vous vous demandez si un élément de structure contient ou pas des fibres d'amiante ? L'INSPQ met à votre disposition une base de données de fournisseurs et de produits utilisés au Québec. Celle-ci fait suite aux travaux menés par une équipe de l'Université de Montréal.

Source : http://www.inspq.qc.ca/dossiers/amiante/amiante_bd.asp


Pour une utilisation sécuritaire des isocyanates, 2e éd.

Inspirée d’une démarche d’hygiène du travail, cette deuxième édition du Guide de prévention pour une utilisation sécuritaire des isocyanates – Démarche d’hygiène du travail vient faciliter la prévention des maladies professionnelles en permettant entre autres d’identifier, d’évaluer, de maîtriser les facteurs de risque associés à l’exposition à ces substances toxiques qui entrent dans la composition de produits telle la peinture pour automobiles. S’appuyant sur les plus récents développements des connaissances, le guide traite de l’exposition par voies respiratoire et cutanée ainsi que d’autres risques pour la sécurité. Il décrit également différents moyens de prévention.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/RG-764.pdf


FIOH’s Nanodevice project is a European success story

The European Commission has labelled the NANODEVICE project, co-ordinated by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), a success story. The project produced affordable measuring devices for determining the concentrations of nanoparticles in the air. The new NANOSOLUTIONS project is another potential success story, with its aim to create a completely new way of evaluating the health hazards of industrial nanoparticles

Source : http://www.ttl.fi/en/press/Pages/pressrelease15_2013.aspx

Cancers Pro Doc, le guide des ressources documentaires sur la prévention des cancers professionnels

L’Institut national du cancer (INCa) met en ligne un guide de ressources documentaires sur la prévention primaire des cancers professionnels : Cancers Pro Doc. Il propose une sélection de documents publiés au cours des dix dernières années. Ceux-ci proviennent de sites institutionnels ou d’organismes reconnus (instituts de recherche, ministères, agences, organismes internationaux etc.).

Source : http://www.e-cancer.fr/prevention/travail-et-cancers/ressources-documentaires



Application of skin contamination studies of ammonia gas for management of hazardous material incidents

In an atmospheric HAZMAT release unprotected public dermal exposure is often of short duration, but with potential secondary exposure if not decontaminated promptly. Mass decontamination is resource intensive and needs to be justified. For many HAZMAT agents there is no evidence-base on which to provide guidance on decontamination, particularly for non-symptomatic worried well. It is important to understand the influence of street clothing and environmental and other factors. Ammonia is a common HAZMAT agent and was selected for in vitro human skin studies of absorption, penetration and off-gassing at test concentrations up to 2000 ppm, incorporating primary and secondary exposure combinations up to 60 min.

Intact skin provided a good barrier to ammonia penetration. Heavy street clothing such as denim was found to act as an initial barrier to skin absorption but subsequently as a reservoir for secondary exposure, under variable temperature and humidity conditions. Rapid off-gassing was observed for lighter fabrics including polyester and cotton. The findings here have been summarized as a set of practical guidelines for emergency responders who are required to make decisions about ammonia decontamination including for non-symptomatic individuals. This evidence-based diagrammatic approach allows for specific actions based on different atmospheric ammonia concentrations and other parameters.

Source : Sharyn Gaskin, Dino Pisaniello, John W. Edwards, David Bromwich, Sue Reed, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter. Application of skin contamination studies of ammonia gas for management of hazardous material incidents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volumes 252–253, 15 May 2013, p.338–346.


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