2012-10-01 12:00 - Messages

Valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques en France

Cette brochure regroupe, dans un tableau unique, les différents agents, y compris cancérogènes, pour lesquels le ministère chargé du Travail a publié des valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle (VLEP), que ces valeurs soient indicatives (VL), réglementaires indicatives (VRI) ou réglementaires contraignantes (VRC).
Le tableau est précédé de quelques rappels concernant la surveillance de l'atmosphère des lieux de travail (échantillonnage et analyse ; aérosols), les valeurs admises (définitions et objectifs, convention d'additivité, éléments et composés, limitations, cancérogènes), les valeurs réglementaires et les valeurs recommandées par la Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie.


Source : Valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques en France : Aide-mémoire technique (ED 984) Nouv. éd. http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%20984

Are Health Care Workers Protected?

Background: The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers (HCWs) is vital in preventing the spread of infection and has implications for HCW safety. Methods: An observational study was performed in 11 hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program between January 7 and March 30, 2011. Using a standardized data collection tool, observers recorded HCWs selecting and removing PPE and performing hand hygiene on entry into the rooms of febrile respiratory illness patients. Results: The majority of HCWs put on gloves (88%, n = 390), gown (83%, n = 368), and mask (88%, n = 386). Only 37% (n = 163) were observed to have put on eye protection. Working in a pediatric unit was significantly associated with not wearing eye protection (7%), gown (70%), gloves (77%), or mask (79%). Half of the observed HCWs (54%, n = 206) removed their PPE in the correct sequence. Twenty-six percent performed hand hygiene after removing their gloves, 46% after removing their gown, and 57% after removing their mask and/or eye protection. Conclusion:
Overall adherence with appropriate PPE use in health care settings involving febrile respiratory illness patients was modest, particularly on pediatric units. Interventions to improve PPE use should be targeted toward the use of recommended precautions (eg, eye protection), HCWs working in pediatric units, the correct sequence of PPE removal, and performing hand hygiene.

Source : Mitchell, R, Roth, V, Gravel, D,  Astrakianakis, G, Bryce,E,  Forgie, S, Johnston,L, Taylor, G, Vearncombe, M. Are health care workers protected? An observational study of selection and removal of personal protective equipment in Canadian acute care hospitals, AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control - 15 October 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2012.04.332

Four types of inorganic nanoparticles stimulate the inflammatory reaction in brain microglia and damage neurons in vitro

Once nanoparticles enter the central nervous system (CNS), they immediately encounter a complex environment of resident microglial immune cell and neurons. In the present study, NPs of 20–60 nm in diameter (SiO2-NPs, TiO2-NPs, HAP-NPs and Fe3O4-NPs) were evaluated for their ability to induce microglia-mediated neurodegeneration. The microglia were directly exposed to NPs. The results showed that both TiO2-NPs and HAP-NPs induced significant iNOS expression, resulting in NO release from the microglia. The expression levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α were also upregulated. These activation effects were accompanied by the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. In addition, the secretion levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were variably increased by all four NPs. Subsequently, the cell-free supernatants from microglia monocultures were harvested and tested for their ability to stimulate PC12 cells. The results demonstrated that microglia-derived soluble factors induced by TiO2-NPs suppressed Th gene expression, and those by TiO2-NPs and HAP-NPs caused cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the NPs induced microglial activation and subsequently caused the release of proinflammatory factors that contributed to the dysfunction and cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

Source : Yang Xue, Jie Wu, Jiao Sun. Four types of inorganic nanoparticles stimulate the inflammatory reaction in brain microglia and damage neurons in vitro. Toxicology Letters, vol. 214, no 2, Oct. 2012, p.  91–98.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427412012544

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.08.009

 

Guide d'échantillonnage des contaminants de l'air en milieu de travail, nouv. éd.

Afin d'assister les intervenants en milieu de travail, l’IRSST publie, révise périodiquement et diffuse le Guide d'échantillonnage des contaminants de l'air en milieu de travail. Ce guide comprend une première partie sur la stratégie d'échantillonnage. La deuxième partie décrit succinctement les différentes techniques d’évaluation utilisables dans une démarche d’hygiène du travail selon la nature des substances : gaz et vapeurs ou aérosols. Il est important de noter que certaines de ces techniques sont exploratoires et ne sont pas des méthodes standard IRSST. De même, des techniques d’évaluation sont données pour les microorganismes bien qu’ils ne soient pas réglementés au Québec. Cette partie contient également de l’information sur l’analyse d’échantillons provenant de procédé et sur l’étalonnage du système d’échantillonnage. La troisième partie spécifie, pour chacune des substances énumérées à l’Annexe I du RSST, les méthodes d’échantillonnage et d’analyse. On y retrouve également de l’information sur l’échantillonnage et l’analyse d’un nombre limité de substances non réglementées, mais tout de même offertes dans le cadre du service analytique des laboratoires de l’IRSST.

Source : Drolet, D.; Beauchamp, G. Guide d'échantillonnage des contaminants de l'air en milieu de travail (8e édition, version 8.1, mise à jour). Études et recherches / Guide technique  T-06, Montréal, IRSST, 2012, 150 pages. http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/T-06.pdf

 

 

Étude sur la qualité de l’air intérieur d’une vingtaine de services de garde à l’enfance situés à Montréal

Afin de mieux comprendre la QAI dans ces milieux, Santé Canada a réalisé, en collaboration avec le Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM) et le Centre universitaire de santé McGill (CUSM), une étude dans des SGE de 40 places et plus, localisés à Montréal. Les objectifs étaient d’en évaluer la QAI et d’identifier les caractéristiques du bâtiment qui pouvaient l’influencer. Ce texte constitue un résumé de l’article «Indoor air quality in Montréal area day-care centres, Canada», paru récemment dans Environmental Research.


Source : St-Jean, M., St-Amand, A., Gilbert, N. L., Soto, J.C., Guay, M., Davis, K., Gyorkos, T.W. 2012. Indoor air quality in Montréal area day-care centres, Canada. Environmental Research, 118: 1–7.
http://www.inspq.qc.ca/bise/post/2012/10/05/RESUME-Qualite-de-le28099air-interieur-dans-les-services-de-garde-a-le28099enfance-situes-a-Montreal.aspx

La Commission publie une communication sur la règlementation communautaire sur les nanomatériaux

L'objectif de ce document est de déterminer si la législation actuelle est adéquate pour assurer une utilisation sûre des nanomatériaux et de proposer éventuellement de nouvelles dispositions pour combler des lacunes. Selon la Commission européenne, la législation en vigueur est suffisante car elle considère que les nanomatériaux sont assimilables à des produits chimiques et qu'ils doivent relever de la même règlementation.

Source : http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2012:0572:FIN:FR:PDF

Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion

OBJECTIVE: We investigated self-reported occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, antiviral drugs, sterilizing agents (disinfectants), and X-rays and the risk of spontaneous abortion in US nurses. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnancy outcome and occupational exposures were collected retrospectively from 8461 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II. Of these, 7482 were eligible for analysis using logistic regression. RESULTS: Participants reported 6707 live births, and 775 (10%) spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks). After adjusting for age, parity, shift work, and hours worked, antineoplastic drug exposure was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion, particularly with early spontaneous abortion before the 12th week, and 3.5-fold increased risk among nulliparous women. Exposure to sterilizing agents was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of late spontaneous abortion (12-20 weeks), but not with early spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that certain occupational exposures common to nurses are related to risks of spontaneous abortion.

Source : Lawson, Christina C. ;  Rocheleau, Carissa M. ;  Whelan, Elizabeth A. ;  Lividoti Hibert, Eileen ;  Grajewski, Barbara ;  Spiegelman, Donna ;  Rich-Edwards, Janet W. Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion. American journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2012, p. 327.e1-8.  Vol. 206, no 4, http://www.musaeduca.cl/site/lib/revistas/Abril2012/Occupationalexposuresamongnursesandriskofspontaneousabortion.pdf

 

Asbestos Interactive Lesson for Apprentices

Health and Safety Executive has produced this 45 minute Asbestos interactive lesson for apprentices showing the dangers of asbestos. It is primarily at trades apprentices in the 16 - 19 age group, for delivery by college lecturers and other vocational education providers. It is also relevant to, and capable of being delivered by, industry professionals, e.g. as part of workplace training. Research shows that although tradespeople know that asbestos is harmful to health, they believe that it is a historical problem, and so do not take action to protect themselves. This package is designed to raise awareness of apprentices about the risks they face when working with asbestos, providing them with basic guidance about what they need to do. Younger people, if routinely exposed to asbestos fibres over time, are at greater risk of developing disease than older workers. This is due to the latency of the affects of asbestos on the body. Providing apprentices with key information at an early stage means they are better equipped to challenge poor work practices and protect themselves.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos/learning-package/index.htm

L’Anses propose, au niveau européen, un classement plus sévère du bisphénol A en tant que toxique pour la reproduction

L'Anses est chargée de fournir un appui aux autorités françaises pour la mise en œuvre de la règlementation européenne relative à la classification et à l'étiquetage des substances chimiques. Dans la continuité des travaux qu'elle a réalisé sur cette substance, l'Agence a déposé, auprès de l'Agence européenne des substances chimiques (ECHA), une proposition de révision du classement du bisphénol A en vue d'un classement plus sévère de cette substance en tant que toxique pour la reproduction, au niveau européen.

Source : http://www.anses.fr/index.htm (section des Actualités)

 

Cancer and Lung Disease in Relation to Sawfiling and Endotoxin Exposure among Sawmill Workers

Exposure to hard metal and endotoxin may lead to adverse health effects in sawfilers and sawmill workers. This study examined the association between occupational exposure to these substances and the risk of lung disease and cancer. Subjects from a previous cohort study of BC sawmill workers were linked to information from hospital records and cancer registries. Employment as a sawfiler was found to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Workers exposed to endotoxin showed a decreased risk of lung cancer, a finding which replicated the results of previous research.

Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/research_results/res_60_10_1150.asp
http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/funding_decisions/assets/pdf/2008/RS2008-DG06.pdf

Cedar Asthma – Markers of Recovery and Severity

Many workers who develop Western Red Cedar Asthma (WRCA) continue to show respiratory impairment years after exposure to Western Red Cedar has ceased. This project examined the association between continuing WRCA symptoms and biomarkers in sputum and blood serum. A positive association was found between the presence of the biomarker interferon-gamma and impairment level. A second phase of this project investigated the relationship between measures of quality of life and respiratory impairment. Results showed impairment level to be significantly associated with decreased measures of quality of life. Due to the persistence of WRCA symptoms after exposure has stopped, the researchers recommend that future prevention efforts focus on reducing the intensity, duration, and overall exposure to Western Red Cedar.

Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/research_results/res_60_10_1120.asp

Occupational exposure to particles and incidence of stroke

Objectives This paper aims to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to particles, particle size, and the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Methods The cohort included all manual workers identified from the Swedish National Census in 1980, who were alive as of 1 January 1987. First time events of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke during the period 1987–2005 were identified through linkage to the Hospital Discharge Register and the National Cause of Death Register. A job-exposure matrix for exposure to small (<1 µm) and large (>1 µm) particles was developed and applied. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox regression with adjustment for age, socioeconomic group, and residential area. Results Increased HR of ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke were found among both women and men occupationally exposed to small as well as large particles. The risks were higher for workers exposed for ≥5 years compared to “ever exposed” participants indicating a dose–response relationship, but no trend with exposure intensity was observed. The risks were generally higher for women than men.  Conclusions Occupational exposure to small and large particles was associated with increased risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Further studies are needed to explore the relationships between exposure to different types of particles and various doses and the occurrence of stroke among women as well as men.

Source : Sjögren B, Lönn M, Feychting M, Nise G, Kauppinen T, Plato N, Wiebert P, Gustavsson P. Scand J Work Environ Health Online-first -article. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3271

Nanotechnology-theme in new Barents Newsletter

Research Professor Harri Alenius comments on his Editorial in the latest Barents Newsletter: "Nanotechnologies using Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are envisaged to become the cornerstone for a number of industrial sectors, from micro-electronics, materials, paper, textile, to energy and cosmetics, industries which are all capable of incorporating some nano-scale-enabled properties into their goods. However, the well-documented issues regarding the safety of ENM have given rise to increasing concerns not only for regulators and the general public but also for industries. A clear understanding of the relationship between nanomaterial characteristics and their properties, such as their surface chemistry, is strongly needed."

Source : Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, vol. 15, no2, 2012 (textes en anglais et en russe)
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/barents_newsletter/Documents/Barents%20Newsletter2_2012.pdf

 

L'exposition à des substances chimiques chez les inhalothérapeutes enceintes : impact potentiel sur le déroulement et le résultat de la grossesse

Le document dresse un portrait du travail de l'inhalothérapeute puis s'intéresse plus particulièrement à l'aérosolthérapie humide. Les inhalothérapeutes ont rapporté l'utilisation de vingt substances administrées sous cette forme. En l'absence d'études épidémiologiques effectuées chez des inhalothérapeutes enceintes, les substances ont été classées en fonction du risque fœto-maternel qui leur est associé lorsqu'elles sont prises à des fins thérapeutiques. L'extrapolation de ces résultats aux inhalothérapeutes enceintes s'avère difficile et dépend du niveau d'exposition des travailleuses qui n'a pu être mesuré, mais qui, on le présume, se situe bien en deçà des niveaux thérapeutiques. Par conséquent, les auteurs concluent en recommandant qu'une recherche soit effectuée dans le but de documenter chez les inhalothérapeutes les concentrations sanguines et urinaires de certains indicateurs.

Source : http://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/1519_ExpoSubsChimInhaloEnceinImpacPotenGrossesse.pdf

 

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