2012-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Les fluides de coupes

État des connaissances sur les usages, les expositions et les pratiques de gestion en France
Dans les conclusions de son premier rapport l'agence [Anses] indiquait que dans un contexte professionnel où il est difficile techniquement de réduire les expositions, il apparaît essentiel de s'assurer et de vérifier l'application des mesures réglementaires d'évaluation des risques et la mise en oeuvre des moyens de protection, individuels et collectifs, des travailleurs exposés aux fluides de coupe, qu'ils soient utilisateurs de ces fluides ou exposés aux brouillards d'huiles du fait de l'environnement de leur poste de travail. De plus il était précisé que des études complémentaires s'avéraient nécessaires pour mieux évaluer les expositions
et les risques liés aux fluides de coupe.
Dans la continuité de ces travaux, une demande de la Direction des Ressources Humaines du ministère de la Défense a été adressée par courrier à l'Anses le 8 juillet 2009. Le ministère de la Défense souhaitait la mise en place d'une enquête qui permettrait :
- l'amélioration de l'évaluation du taux d'exposition ;
- une meilleure définition des modalités d'utilisation de ce produit ;
- une meilleure définition des mesures de prévention et de protection collective et individuelle ;
- d'obtenir une connaissance approfondie des pathologies pouvant résulter de son utilisation ;
- une amélioration du suivi de l'exposition et de la surveillance médicale.

Source : http://www.anses.fr/Documents/CHIM2009sa0328Ra.pdf

Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to manganese and iron among welders

We investigated airborne and internal exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) among welders. Personal sampling of welding fumes was carried out in 241 welders during a shift. Metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mn in blood (MnB) was analyzed by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry. Determinants of exposure levels were estimated with multiple regression models. Respirable Mn was measured with a median of 62 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8.4–320) μg/m3 and correlated with Fe (r=0.92, 95% CI 0.90–0.94). Inhalable Mn was measured with similar concentrations (IQR 10–340 μg/m3). About 70% of the variance of Mn and Fe could be explained, mainly by the welding process. Ventilation decreased exposure to Fe and Mn significantly. Median concentrations of MnB and serum ferritin (SF) were 10.30 μg/l (IQR 8.33–13.15 μg/l) and 131 μg/l (IQR 76–240 μg/l), respectively. Few welders were presented with low iron stores, and MnB and SF were not correlated (r=0.07, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.20). Regression models revealed a significant association of the parent metal with MnB and SF, but a low fraction of variance was explained by exposure-related factors. Mn is mainly respirable in welding fumes. Airborne Mn and Fe influenced MnB and SF, respectively, in welders. This indicates an effect on the biological regulation of both metals. Mn and Fe were strongly correlated, whereas MnB and SF were not, likely due to higher iron stores among welders.

Source : Beate Pesch, Tobias Weiss, Benjamin Kendzia, Jana Henry, Martin Lehnert, Anne Lotz, Evelyn Heinze, Heiko Udo Käfferlein, Rainer Van Gelder, Markus Berges, Jens-Uwe Hahn, Markus Mattenklott, Ewald Punkenburg, Andrea Hartwig and Thomas Brüning The Weldox Group. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2012 22: 291-298. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.9

Évaluation des risques relatifs au talc seul et au talc contaminé par des fibres asbestiformes et non asbestiformes

Avis de l'Anses
Suite à plusieurs signalements concernant l'utilisation en milieu professionnel d'un enduit fabriqué à partir de talc suspecté de contenir des fibres d'amiante, l'Agence a été saisie en mars 2009 pour faire le point sur la composition en fibres minérales, et en fragments de clivage, des talcs, ainsi que sur les risques sanitaires liés à leur utilisation. Elle vient de publier le résultat de ses travaux et fait des recommandations visant, notamment, une meilleure protection des travailleurs.

Source : http://www.anses.fr/Documents/AIR2009sa0332Ra.pdf

Adverse effects of pesticides on biochemical and haematological parameters in Tunisian agricultural workers

Biomonitoring of effects in agricultural workers is necessary to assess the individual risk of handling pesticides. In this study, biochemical and haematological parameters were measured to evaluate the effects of exposure to these compounds in agricultural workers. The study was carried out in 110 workers and 97 control subjects. Several haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed. Assessment of haematological parameters revealed that the mean cell volume and haematocrit levels were significantly lower in workers than in controls (P=0.002 and 0.013, respectively), while mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations were higher in workers (P<0.001). There was also a significant inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity in workers compared with that in controls (P<0.001). Assessment of biochemical parameters further showed significantly higher activities of transferases, lactate dehydrogenase (P<0.001), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P=0.006) and creatine kinase (CK) (P<0.015), as well as higher levels of proteins (P<0.001), creatinine (P=0.001) and urea (P=0.001) in workers compared with controls, along with significantly higher uric acid levels (P=0.012). Furthermore, the number of years exposed to pesticides predicted higher activities of alanine aminotransferase, CK, ALP, as well as uric acid levels. Overall, chronic exposure to pesticides appeared to affect several biochemical parameters. These biomarkers seem to be indicative of adverse effects of pesticides in agricultural workers, confirming their use for routine monitoring of effects.

Source : Manel Araoud, Fadoua Neffeti, Wahiba Douki, Hassen Ben Hfaiedh, Mohamed Akrout, Mohssen Hassine, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar and Abderraouf Kenani. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 22: 243-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.11

Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to EDTA-containing detergents or disinfectants

Background: Detergents and disinfectants are an emerging cause of work-related rhinitis and asthma. These products may contain ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The authors report 10 cases of EDTA-related asthma and/or rhinitis.
Methods: Review of the medical charts of patients who presented with work-related rhinitis (alone or with asthma), with a history of exposure to aerosols of EDTA-containing products and who underwent a nasal provocation test (NPT) with tetrasodium EDTA (1–4%) in our occupational health unit.
Results: Twenty-eight patients underwent a NPT with EDTA, which was positive in 10 cases. These patients, mostly cleaners or healthcare workers, used spray formulations of cleaning products.
Conclusions: This case series is the first report of EDTA-related respiratory disease, documented by a specific test. An irritant mechanism is unlikely. Further studies are required to distinguish between an immunoallergic response and a pharmacological mechanism possibly resulting from calcium chelation, as suggested by animal experiments. A ban of spray preparations would be sufficient to prevent respiratory disease induced by EDTA inhalation, regardless of its mechanism.

Source : LABORDE-CASTÉROT, Hervé et al. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, March 16, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22036

Gender differences in acute pesticide-related illnesses and injuries among farmworkers in the United States, 1998-2007

BACKGROUND: Farmworkers have a high risk for acute pesticide-related illness and injury, and the rate among female farmworkers is approximately twice as high as that among males. Surveillance data were used to identify reasons for this gender difference. METHODS: We identified acute pesticide-related illness and injury cases among farmworkers from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Gender-specific associations with acute pesticide-related illness and injury were assessed using chi-square tests. National Agricultural Workers Survey data were also examined. RESULTS: The over-representation of females among farmworker illness and injury cases was confined to females who did not handle pesticides (non-handlers). Female non-handler farmworkers who were affected were more likely to be working on fruit and nut crops, to be exposed to off-target pesticide drift, and to be exposed to fungicides and fumigants compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is an increased risk for acute pesticide-related illness and injury among female farmworkers, the absolute number of farmworkers with acute pesticide-related illness and injury is far higher among males than females. Furthermore, farmworkers have little or no control over many of the identified contributing factors that led to illness and injury. Stringent enforcement of existing regulations and enhanced regulatory efforts to protect against off-target drift exposures may have the highest impact in reducing acute pesticide-related illness and injury among farmworkers.

Source : Kasner EJ, Keralis JM, Mehler L, Beckman J, Bonnar-Prado J, Lee SJ, Diebolt-Brown B, Mulay P, Lackovic M, Waltz J, Schwartz A, Mitchell Y, Moraga-McHaley S, Roisman R, Gergely R, Calvert GM. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22052

Pregnancy Outcomes After Paternal Radiofrequency Field Exposure Aboard Fast Patrol Boats

Objectives: To investigate adverse reproductive outcomes among male employees in the Royal Norwegian Navy exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields aboard fast patrol boats.
Methods: Cohort study of Royal Norwegian Navy servicemen linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, including singleton offspring born between 1967 and 2008 (n = 37,920). Exposure during the last 3 months before conception (acute) and exposure more than 3 months before conception (nonacute) were analyzed.
Results: Perinatal mortality and preeclampsia increased after service aboard fast patrol boats during an acute period and also after increased estimated radiofrequency exposure during an acute period, compared with service aboard other vessels. No associations were found between nonacute exposure and any of the reproductive outcomes.
Conclusions: Paternal work aboard fast patrol boats during an acute period was associated with perinatal mortality and preeclampsia, but the cause is not clear.

Source : Baste, Valborg PhD; Moen, Bente E. PhD; Oftedal, Gunnhild PhD; Strand, Leif Åge PhD; Bjørge, Line PhD; Mild, Kjell Hansson PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2012 - Volume 54 - Issue 4 - p 431–438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182445003

Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Hard Metal Workers Exposed to Cobalt

Objective: To follow-up lung function and airway symptoms in workers exposed to cobalt dust at a hard metal plant.
Methods: A total of 582 employees underwent spirometry and completed a questionnaire. A historical exposure matrix was created, assigning figures for historical and recent work-related exposure.
Results: At the time of employment, 5% reported symptoms from respiratory tract. At follow-up, 5% suffered from persistent coughing and 7% reported asthma; 20% were daily smokers. Among nonsmokers without asthma, an evident, statistically nonsignificant, dose–response effect was seen between increasing cobalt exposure and decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second). In all exposure categories, the FEV1 in smokers declined 10 mL more per year than for nonsmokers.
Conclusions: Even low levels of cobalt exposure seem to hamper lung function both in smokers and nonsmokers. This impact is considered low in relation to the effect of aging.

Source : Rehfisch, Pia MD; Anderson, Martin MD, PhD; Berg, Peter MSc; Lampa, Erik MSc; Nordling, Yvonne RN; Svartengren, Magnus MD, PhD; Westberg, Håkan MSc, PhD; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar MD, PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2012 - Volume 54 - Issue 4 - p 409–413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31824d2d7e

Portail Exp-Pro dédié aux expositions professionnelles

Des outils en ligne pour aider à l'évaluation des expositions
L'Institut de veille sanitaire (INVS) met en ligne un nouveau portail Exp-Pro dédié à l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles. Plusieurs outils d'aide sont désormais mis à disposition des médecins du travail, des préventeurs et des professionnels de santé. Ce portail constitue une aide précieuse pour retracer les expositions auxquelles les travailleurs ont pu être exposés.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/portail-exppro-invs.html

A Systematic Review of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management.

Source : Mehrpour O, Jafarzadeh M, Abdollahi M. Arh. Hig. Rada Toksikol. 2012; 63(1): 61-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2182

Scientific evaluation of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals (NEG) has recently published an evaluation on Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 synthetic compounds (con¬geners) of which 12 are dioxin-like. For environmental reasons, PCB production and use is banned or restricted worldwide, but occupational exposure to PCBs may still occur e.g. during renovation work and handling of waste and also in PCB-contaminated buildings.

Source : http://osha.europa.eu/en/news/se-scientific-evaluation-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs

Rapport : http://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/28926/1/gupea_2077_28926_1.pdf

Risques accrus de crise cardiaque et d'AVC pour les travailleurs de l'amiante, selon une étude

Les travailleurs de l'amiante ont un « risque significativement accru » de mourir d'une crise cardiaque ou d'un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC), selon les résultats d'une étude britannique parue mardi.
« La mortalité par AVC et par cardiopathies coronariennes [principalement l'infarctus du myocarde] est beaucoup plus élevée pour les travailleurs de l'amiante que pour la population en général », expliquent des chercheurs du Health and Safety Laboratory, un laboratoire public britannique spécialisé dans la santé au travail.

Source : http://www.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/sante/2012/04/03/001-amiante-maladies-cardiaques-etude.shtml

Étude : Anne-Helen Harding, Andrew Darnton, John Osman. Occup Environ Med. 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2011-100313

Une nouvelle norme d’analyse de COV pour les vernis et peintures

L'arrêté du 27 février 2012 modifie l'arrêté du 29 mai 2006 relatif à la réduction des émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) dues à l'utilisation de solvants organiques dans certains vernis et peintures et dans les produits de retouche de véhicules.
Il entrera en vigueur au 1er avril 2012 et modifie la façon de faire les analyses de COV. À ce titre, ces nouvelles mesures s'appliquent aux fabricants de peinture et vernis et laboratoires indépendants.

Source : http://www.preventica.com/actu-enbref-normes-cov-peinture-vernis-2260312.php

Conclusions d'un séminaire sur le travail avec les nanomatériaux

L'objectif du séminaire qui s'est déroulé le 29 novembre 2011 à Bruxelles était de sensibiliser sur la question des nanomatériaux, de promouvoir les activités pour assurer la protection des salariés et de faciliter l'échange d'informations et la collaboration entre les États membres.
Il avait trait à des informations sur les initiatives individuelles et collaboratives des États membres dans ce domaine, sur les outils et instruments pertinents élaborés par des institutions en matière de santé et sécurité au travail, et sur le point de vue des représentants des travailleurs et des employeurs. Par conséquent, il a été jugé approprié de présenter le rapport à la DG Emploi, affaires sociales et inclusion de la Commission européenne, comme élément à prendre en compte lors de l'élaboration de sa politique en matière des nanomatériaux.

Source : http://osha.europa.eu/fr/news/eu-workworking-with-nanomamaterials-now-available

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