2010-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Reflections on the INTERPHONE Study of Cell Phones and Brain Cancer

Many people cannot imagine life without a cell phone. Since commercial cell phone networks were first introduced in the 1980s, over half the world's population now uses them. While becoming a way of life and work, the radio frequency (RF) waves from cell phones have also been depositing energy into users' brains. With billions of people exposed to more RF energy than ever before, scientists and the public have asked if a lifetime of cell phone use might be a health risk.

Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/blog/nsb072610_interphone.html

A small survey of exposure to rubber process dust, rubber fume and N-nitrosamines

This report was carried out in support of HSE’s FIT3 Disease Reduction Programme Cancer Project’s aim to develop a strategy to reduce the incidence of occupational cancer in Great Britain.

Source : http://news.hse.gov.uk/2010/07/28/rr819-a-small-survey-of-exposure-to-rubber-process-dust-rubber-fume-and-n-nitrosamines/

Revue sélective de la littérature (1995 à 2009) sur la cancérogénicité du trichloroéthylène (TCE)

En 1995, un groupe de travail du Centre international de recherche sur le cancer (CIRC – International Agency for Research in Cancer – IARC) a conclu que le trichloroéthylène (trichloroéthène; TCE; numéro d'enregistrement CAS : 79-01-6) pouvait causer le cancer chez les rongeurs de laboratoire, et qu'il était probablement cancérogène pour les humains (IARC, 1995). Afin de déterminer si ces conclusions ont été modifiées de façon notable par les publications scientifiques plus récentes, une revue de mise à jour a été réalisée pour l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). Cette revue mettait l'accent sur la littérature des 10 à 15 dernières années, de manière à couvrir la période subséquente à l'évaluation de 1995 du CIRC.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-654.pdf

Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials

State of the art
Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose–response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose–response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

Source : http://www.springerlink.com/content/c622j2p84346q605/?p=d8dee0807d9b450eac8eb18de3727f21&pi=4

Bladder cancer risk in painters

A meta-analysis
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified occupational exposure as a painter as ‘carcinogenic to humans', largely based on increased risks of bladder and lung cancer. A meta-analysis, including more than 2900 incident cases or deaths from bladder cancer among painters reported in 41 cohort (n=2), record linkage (n=9) and case–control (n=30) studies, was conducted to quantitatively compare the results of the different study designs and the potential confounding effect of smoking as well as other occupational exposures. The summary relative risk (meta-RR, random effects) for bladder cancer in painters was 1.25 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.34; 41 studies) overall and 1.28 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.43; 27 studies) when including only smoking adjusted risk estimates. The elevated risk persisted when restricted to studies that adjusted for other occupational exposures (meta-RR 1.27; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.63; 4 studies). The results remained robust when stratified by study design, gender and study location. Furthermore, exposure–response analyses suggested that the risk increased with duration of employment. There was no evidence of publication bias. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that occupational exposures in painters are causally associated with the risk of bladder cancer.

Source : http://oem.bmj.com/content/67/8/568.full

Mutagenicity of Stereochemical Configurations of 1,3-Butadiene Epoxy Metabolites in Human Cells

This report describes a study by Dr. Ryan Meng and colleagues to determine the role of stereochemistry in the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of three major butadiene metabolites. This study is a part of HEI's program of research in air toxics; one important aim of that program has been to fill key gaps in risk assessment for some of the most important chemicals. Butadiene is present in motor vehicle exhaust and other emissions and is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency among the mobile-source air toxics that, because of their emissions and reported toxicity, pose a possible health risk. The study addressed a key research and risk assessment question related to species differences in tumor induction by butadiene, which have been attributed to differences in its metabolism. The investigators evaluated whether different stereoisomers (spatially different forms of the same chemical structure) of the metabolites showed different levels of mutagenicity in a human lymphoblastoid cell line. 

Source : http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=344

Rapid and Simple Kinetics Screening Assay for Electrophilic Dermal Sensitizers Using Nitrobenzenethiol

The need for alternatives to animal-based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in vitro, in silico, and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped-flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled the determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for seven extreme, five strong, seven moderate, and four weak/nonsensitizers. Seventeen out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order, and three were second order. In three out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate, and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, select diones, and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid, and inexpensive absorbance-based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens.

Source : http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/tx100003w

Identification of research needs to resolve the carcinogenicity of high-priority IARC carcinogens

The purpose was two-fold: (1) identify research needs to address the information needs and gaps for a more definitive classification, and (2) Create a report that will be of value to funding agencies in determining possible projects to support.

For each agent, a common reporting template was used. All templates had the following categories :

• Summary

• Citation for most recent IARC review

• Current evaluation

• Exposure and biomonitoring

• Cancer in humans

• Cancer in experimental animals

bull; Mechanisms of carcinogenicity

• Research needs and recommendations

• Selected relevant publications since IARC review / References

 

Source: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Publications/techrep42/index.php

A review of the role pesticides play in some cancers

Children, farmers and pesticide users at risk?
Section 1 of this report provides a summary of the epidemiological and related data linking exposure to pesticides with certain cancers. It notes several studies suggesting that exposure to pesticides seems to confer a greater risk of several specific cancers including, but not limited to, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), soft tissue sarcoma, leukaemia, prostate cancer and brain cancer.
Moreover, it provides a summary of the growing body of research indicating that pesticide exposure may play a role in hormone-related cancers including prostate, breast and testicular cancers. Studies of death registries in some parts of the world suggest that farmers and agricultural workers are more likely than the general population to die from several cancers including NHL, leukaemia, multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, Hodgkin's disease, pancreatic cancer and brain cancer. Some studies strongly indicate an association between pesticide exposure and NHL, leukaemia and prostate cancer.

Source : http://www.chemtrust.org.uk/documents/CHEM%20Trust%20Report%20-%20Pesticides%20&%20Cancer%20July%202010.pdf

Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances where evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. The objectives are to identify research gaps and needs for twenty agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans.

Source : http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901828#top

Utilisation des amides en France

Cet article présente une étude de filière de l'INRS qui a concerné 28 secteurs industriels, parmi lesquels 10 117 établissements contactés au moyen d'un questionnaire auto-déclaré. Le taux de réponse est voisin de 45 %.
Environ 20 000 salariés sont potentiellement exposés aux amides, ils se répartissent majoritairement dans les laboratoires de recherche et dans le secteur industriel de la chimie.
Du point de vue des quantités mises en oeuvre, une partition est effective entre les amides ayant des utilisations industrielles, diméthylformamide (DMF) et N,N-diméthylacétamide (DMAC), avec des quantités supérieures à 1 000 tonnes ; les amides n'ayant que des applications de laboratoire, formamide et acétamide, avec des quantités inférieures à 10 tonnes et ceux ayant des applications mixtes, N-méthylacétamide (NMAC) et N-méthylformamide (NMF), avec des quantités consommées comprises entre 50 et 150 tonnes.

Source : http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParIntranetID/OM:Document:694450FDA57B4084C1257754003893C4/$FILE/Visu.html

Cancers d'origine professionnelle

Quelle reconnaissance en Europe ?
EUROGIP publie les résultats d'une nouvelle étude sur la possibilité de reconnaître le caractère professionnel des cancers et sur le nombre de cas reconnus par les organismes d'assurance AT/MP à travers les données nationales de douze pays européens.
Après une typologie des expositions professionnelles et de la population exposée, le rapport (52 pages) fait le point sur les cancers susceptibles d'être reconnus comme professionnels au titre de la liste nationale de maladies professionnelles, mais aussi du système hors-liste. La plus importante partie du rapport est consacrée aux données nationales 2000-2008, à travers une vue d'ensemble et des données nationales détaillées. Enfin, il est question du suivi post-professionnel des travailleurs exposés.

Source : http://www.eurogip.fr/fr/publication-cancers-d-origine-professionnelle-quelle-reconnaissance-en-europe.php?id=145

Aldehydes in air

is procedure – based on BS ISO 160003:20011 – describes a laboratory method for the determination of airborne concentrations of aldehydes using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This document is part of the ‘Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances' (MDHS) guidance.

Source : http://news.hse.gov.uk/2010/07/02/mdhs102-aldehydes-in-air/

Determining current health and safety practices, awareness of HSE initiatives and economic trends in relation to isocyanate paint use in the MVR sector

This report contains the main results of research carried out for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), by the Institute for Employment Studies examining health and safety practices and procedures in relation to the use of isocyanate-based paints in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) sector. The main objective of this research was to determine current health and safety practices in the motor vehicle repair sector in relation to the use of isocyanate paint spray, focusing in particular on the use of masks and the use of spray booths. The intention was to gather data about practice, in order to gain a view of the overall state of play in relation to the health and safety practices that determine isocyanate use in the sector. The intention was that this will, in turn, make it possible and viable for the HSE to develop a baseline for targeting future embedding activity.

Source : http://news.hse.gov.uk/2010/07/01/determining-current-health-and-safety-practices-awareness-of-hse-initiatives-and-economic-trends-in-relation-to-isocyanate-paint-use-in-the-mvr-sector/

Plastic containers for flammable liquids/hazardous areas

This report contains an assessment of the electrostatic risks associated with a selection of commonly available plastic containers ranging in size from 50 ml bottles to 1000 l Intermediate Bulk Containers, and manufactured from a variety of materials.

Source : http://news.hse.gov.uk/2010/07/02/rr804-plastic-containers-for-flammable-liquidshazardous-areas/

Ouverture du portail "radiofréquences, santé, environnement"

Comme annoncé par le Gouvernement français à l’issue de la table ronde « radiofréquences, santé, environnement », organisée au printemps 2009, un portail interministériel est ouvert sur ce sujet.

Source : http://www.radiofrequences.gouv.fr/

ECHA adds eight substances to the Candidate List for authorisation

The European Chemicals Agency has added 8 chemical substances to the Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) for authorisation. Following the unanimous agreement of the Member State Committee, ECHA is adding 8 substances on the Candidate List, which now contains 38 substances in total. The 8 substances, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) substances, are listed below. As foreseen by REACH, a specific procedure will be followed to decide whether the substances should also be included in the authorisation list.

Source : http://osha.europa.eu/en/news/eu-echa-adds-eight-substances-to-the-candidate-list-for-authorisation

Allergies respiratoires professionnelles dues aux gommes naturelles

La sensibilisation respiratoire professionnelle aux gommes naturelles concerne les salariés en contact avec ces gommes pulvérulentes ou aérosolisées, essentiellement dans le cadre de l'industrie agroalimentaire, pharmaceutique, cosmétique, l'industrie textile et celle du papier. En plus de celles rencontrées dans les secteurs d'activités cités, les professions les plus concernées actuellement sont celles de la santé et, dans le passé, les imprimeurs et les coiffeurs.
La plupart des gommes naturelles sont des additifs alimentaires. Il s'agit des gommes arabique, karaya, adragante, guar, de caroube, de tamarin, de psyllium, xanthane, des alginates, de la pectine. L'affection est d'origine immunoallergique, IgE dépendante. Les allergènes majeurs responsables de l'allergie aux gommes ne sont pas identifiés. L'allergie respiratoire aux gommes est souvent facilement reconnue. En pratique, le diagnostic repose habituellement sur la présence d'une symptomatologie chronologiquement liée à la manipulation de la gomme pulvérulente et la positivité des tests allergologiques sérologiques ou cutanés. Le test de provocation nasale, quand il existe une rhinite - ce qui est habituel -, permet le diagnostic si les tests allergologiques ne sont pas disponibles. L'atopie est un facteur de risque de survenue de l'affection mais le facteur de risque essentiel est le niveau d'exposition à l'allergène. La prévention technique met en oeuvre toutes les mesures susceptibles de réduire l'exposition.

Source : http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2049/$File/TR49.pdf

Matériaux composites à base de fibres de carbone

Vers un repérage des situations potentiellement à risque
L'Afsset publie ce jour les résultats d'une expertise collective sur les risques pour la santé des travailleurs liés aux composites de carbone associés à la fabrication et l'usinage des fibres de carbone et des matériaux composites. Cette technologie est en expansion et est déjà utilisée dans le secteur de l'aéronautique mais aussi dans celui des sports et des loisirs, du génie civil, de l'automobile, de la construction navale, de l'éolien, …

Source : http://www.afsset.fr/index.php?pageid=452&newsid=582&MDLCODE=news

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