Exposure-response relationships for silicosis and its progression in industrial sand workers

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the relationship between radiographic silicosis and exposure to respirable quartz and determine how exposure affects disease progression.
Methods: Surveillance chest radiographs from a cohort of 1902 workers were examined to identify 67 cases of radiographic silicosis and 167 matched controls. Exposures were estimated by linking work histories to a job exposure matrix (JEM) based on samples collected by the participating companies and historical estimates. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine exposure-response relationships. Sequential radiographs from silicosis cases were used to assess associations between exposure and disease progression.
Results: Risk of silicosis increased with cumulative exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.43 per 1 mg/m3 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23–1.66], average exposure concentration (OR 1.30 per 0.10 mg/m3, 95% CI 1.11–1.51) and net exposure duration (OR 1.10 per year, 95% CI 1.05–1.16). Multivariate analyses indicated that the risk associated with cumulative exposure varied depending on exposure duration and concentration. Analysis of the time worked at differing exposure levels indicated that exposures ≤0.05 mg/m3 were not significantly associated with silicosis risk after adjustment for years worked at higher concentrations. Disease progression was related to subsequent exposure concentration, with a yearly increase in small opacity profusion of 0.052 subcategory per each 0.10 mg/m3 increase in concentration.
Conclusions: Workers with longer exposure at lower concentrations were at higher risk for silicosis than those with the same cumulative exposure who worked for a shorter time at higher concentrations. The rate of silicosis progression was related to subsequent exposure concentration.

Source: Vacek, P.M., Glenn, R.E., Rando, R.J., Parker, J.E., Kanne, J.P., Henry, D.A., Meyer, C.A. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Amiante. Aéraulique des chantiers d'amiante sous confinement

Guide pratique de ventilation
Ce guide propose une démarche permettant une acquisition didactique de la méthode du bilan aéraulique des chantiers sous confinement, depuis la reconnaissance des lieux jusqu'à la vérification sur chantier, en passant par le dimensionnement et l'implantation du matériel nécessaire.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206307

Étude comparative des banques de données de mesures d’exposition IMIS (OSHA) et LIMS (IRSST)

Une bonne connaissance des niveaux d'exposition des travailleurs aux contaminants chimiques est fondamentale dans un programme de maîtrise, de prévention et de gestion des risques associés à ces substances. Au Québec, l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) administre un système de gestion de l'information du laboratoire (LIMS – Laboratory Information Management System). Cette banque de données électronique contient l'ensemble des résultats d'analyse liés à l'évaluation de l'exposition telle que mesurée par les équipes de santé au travail depuis 1985. Les données du LIMS sont intéressantes pour établir des portraits d'exposition. Cependant, leur interprétation est limitée par le peu d'éléments d'information sur les circonstances et les objectifs associés à chaque prélèvement. La banque de données Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) de l'agence américaine Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), qui contient les résultats des analyses d'échantillons recueillis depuis 1979 par ses inspecteurs, renferme une information plus complète sur le contexte des prélèvements que celle colligée dans le LIMS. De plus, contrairement au LIMS qui présente seulement les valeurs de concentration de l'échantillon, la majorité des résultats dans l'IMIS sont des mesures d'exposition individuelles calculées, directement comparables aux valeurs limites d'exposition.

Considérant la similarité des activités socio-économiques américaines et québécoises, l'objectif général de cette activité de recherche était de comparer les données d'exposition recueillies par l'agence OSHA et les données du LIMS pour évaluer leur utilité comme source d'information sur les conditions d'exposition des travailleurs québécois.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/101009/n/imis-lims

Historical changes in chemical exposures encountered by Danish firefighters

Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the possibility of using history science methods in occupational studies by evaluating overall historical changes in Danish firefighting modifying chemical exposures from smoke and fire trucks.
Methods: Data on changes in Danish firefighting after World War II were searched for in both museums and the Danish library catalogue REX, accessing collections of literature from all institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Royal Library.
Results: Several historical changes were identified either increasing or reducing chemical exposures in Danish firefighting. New sources of chemical exposures included more toxic smoke combustion from plastic materials introduced in the 1950s, exhaust from new diesel engines introduced in the 1960s and new assignments relating to chemical cleanups in the 1970s and traffic accidents in the 1990s. Nevertheless, several improvements in the profession's work environment may have reduced chemical exposures, for example, mandatory use of more effective respiratory protection equipment in the 1970s, incorporation of mechanical exhaust systems in the 2000s, and filters and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for diesel engines in the 2010s.
Conclusion: The data showed that the work environment in Danish firefighting has undergone several improvements during the last decades. At the same time, however, several new chemical hazards have also been introduced. Consequently, no strong conclusions as to whether Danish firefighting overall has become a less hazardous profession can be made.

Source: Pedersen, J. E., Petersen, K. U. et Hansen, J. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Assessment of nanofibre dustiness by means of vibro-fluidization

Dustiness testing probes for the propensity of a powdery material to release dust particles following agitation. For high aspect-ratio materials like nanotubes, the most important dust fraction is that of potentially carcinogenic fibres(WHO-fibres).Wedeveloped the fluidizer particularly for fibres thatmakes use of vibro-fluidization in order to effectively disentangle single fibres and agglomerates of multi-walled carbon nanotube powders. Counting rules for morphological characterization of collected particles by means of electron microscopywere established, allowing quantifying the WHO-fibre fraction. Dustiness tests on 15 different multi-walled carbon nanotubes were performed using two different levels of energy input for each material. The fluidizer accomplished bubbling fluidization for 13 out of the 15 multi-walled carbon nanotubes, resulting in continuous aerosol generation with stable particle number concentration and a high fraction of single fibres. Dustiness measurands like average particle number concentrations varied by three orders of magnitude. Morphological characterization of particles on aerosol samples proved to be essential to overcome the limitations of the applied aerosol instruments in quantifying theWHO-fibre fraction, therefore allowing material ranking based on associated risk. The materials showed strong ordering discrepancy when ranked based on total dustiness and WHO-fibre dustiness. Several multiwalled carbon nanotubes showed WHO-fibre concentrations high enough to potentially cause workplace exposure at hazardous concentration levels in case powders are handled carelessly.

Source: Broßell, D., Heunisch, E., Meyer-Plath, A., Bäger, D., Bachmann, V., Kämpf, K., ... et Plitzko, S. (2019). Powder Technology 342, 491–508.

Comparison of Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation as Testing Methods for Characterisation of Granular Biopersistent Particles (GBP)

Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) data
The comparison of the inflammatory potency of the 6 GBP candidates came out with a good accordance of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) levels in the differential cell count for µ-TiO2. On day 3 post-treatment, PMN were not increased statistically significantly in the low and high dose groups, neither after instillation nor after inhalation. Thus, a very low inflammogenicity confirmed µ-TiO2 as GBP. µ-BaSO4 (low dose groups) showed a behaviour similar to µ-TiO2. However, for nano-TiO2 P25 an evident difference was observed as a strong induction of PMN after instillation was not mirrored after inhalation. µ-Eu2O3, µ-ZrO2 and nano-SiO2 showed all a strong acute inflammation not meeting this GBP criterion.
Comparison of chemical analysis data of the lung burdens
Post-instillation, an average retention of approx. 70% of the total dose was analytically detected; therefore, the target lung loads for the inhalation study were calculated at this day 3 dose level using the MPPD model. The analysis revealed that these values were achieved satisfactorily in average. The clearance half-time showed a value close to the physiological rat lung clearance of approx. 60 days in both µ-TiO2 "Bayertitan T" dose groups and in the nano-TiO2 P25 low dose group; in the latter high dose group t1/2=100 days was only moderately increased (overload effect). In the µ-BaSO4 and amorphous silica groups, values similar to the instillation test were observed (25-30 days; low values indicating an additional dissolution effect). In the µ-Eu2O3 and µ-ZrO2 groups increased half-times vs. the physiological value (= 60 days) indicated a clear surface chemistry-related toxicity and clearance retardation.
Considering the percentual PMN as well as the absolute PMN concentrations, the predominant observation is that inhalation induced a smaller PMN influx (with exception of biosoluble µ-BaSO4 and nano-SiO2) at similar doses. This can be expected because of the physiological dust uptake and deposition by inhalation that is more gentle than intratracheal instillation (bolus effect!). Effects detected after instillation will not always allow a 'non inert' statement. The final setting of maximum tolerable clearance t1/2 and PMN levels to define the GBP category should include inhalation. Doses at instillation testing of nanoparticles should not exceed volumetric values of 0.3 µl (using the correct agglomerate density).

Source: https://www.baua.de/EN/Service/Publications/Report/F2364.html

Carcinogenicity of some nitrobenzenes and other industrial chemicals

In October, 2018, 14 experts from six countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ortho-phenylenediamine and its dihydrochloride salt, 2-chloronitrobenzene, 4-chloronitrobenzene, 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 2,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, 2-amino-4-chlorophenol, para-nitroanisole, and N,N-dimethylacetamide. These assessments will be published in Volume 123 of the IARC Monographs.

Source: (2018). The Lancet Oncology.

NF X43-215 - Prélèvement et analyse des aérosols semi-volatils

Exigences et méthodes d'essai
Le présent document décrit les procédures de mise au point, de validation et de mise en oeuvre de méthodes de prélèvement et d'analyse d'agents chimiques présents sous la forme d'un mélange de particules aériennes et de vapeur pour l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles.

Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x43-215/qualite-de-l-air-air-des-lieux-de-travail-prelevement-et-analyse-des-aerosols-semi-volatils-exigences-et-methodes-d-essai/article/909349/fa191295

Asbestos: Modern Insights for Toxicology in the Era of Engineered Nanomaterials

Asbestos fibers are naturally occurring silicates that have been extensively used in the past, including house construction, but because of their toxicity, their use has been banned in 63 countries. Despite this, more than one million metric tons of asbestos are still consumed annually in countries where asbestos use has not been banned. Asbestos-related disease incidence is still increasing in several countries, including those countries that banned the use of asbestos more than 30 years ago. We highlight here recent knowledge obtained in experimental models about the mechanisms leading to tumor development following asbestos exposure, including genetic and epigenetic changes. Importantly, the landscape of alterations observed experimentally in tumor samples is consistent with alterations observed in clinical tumor samples; therefore, studies performed on early/precancer stages should help inform secondary prevention, which remains crucial in the absence of an efficient primary prevention. Knowledge gathered on asbestos should also help address future challenges, especially in view of the increased production of new materials that may behave similarly to asbestos fibers.

Source: Felley-Bosco, E. et MacFarlane, M. (2018). Chemical Research in Toxicology, 31(10), 994-1008.

ASTM E2535 - Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings

This guide is intended for use by entities involved in the handling of UNP in occupational settings. This guide covers handling principles and techniques that may be applied, as appropriate, to the variety of UNP materials and handling settings. These settings include research and development activities, material manufacturing, and material use and processing. This guide may also be used by entities that receive materials or articles containing or comprising nanoscale particles fixed upon or within a matrix (that is, bound nanoscale particles), but whose own processes or use may reasonably be expected to cause such particles to become unbound.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2535.htm

A health risk assessment of working in hypoxic atmospheres

Hypoxic atmospheres - those in which the ambient oxygen level is lower than normal – may be specifically generated in some workplaces, particularly for fire prevention. Such atmospheres potentially present a health risk to workers who are required to enter the hypoxic space. This report reviews the impact of hypoxia on human physiology, behaviour, and cognitive function, in order to provide information about the potential occupational health risks arising from working in hypoxic atmospheres.
The available evidence suggests that hypoxic environments in which the levels of oxygen are greater than 15% but below 21%, are safe for most healthy, fit individuals. However, prior to entry into such environments, risk assessments should be performed to cover: the working environment; the work and tasks undertaken; and the worker. Occupational health assessments should be in place for all workers who have a potential requirement to enter these atmospheres. Careful consideration should be given to: workers carrying out tasks that require higher levels of physical activity; and pregnant workers.
For hypoxic working environments between 12% and 15% oxygen, there is a lack of evidence-based or expert consensus-led guidance that addresses medical conditions and their severity. There is therefore an insufficient evidence-base to provide guidelines for safe working in hypoxic environments between 12-15% oxygen, other than relating to the use of supplemental oxygen.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1137.htm

ASTM D6877 - Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace

This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm

Validation of a measurement method for diacetyl using sorbent tubes and thermal desorption

Diacetyl, also known as 2,3-butanedione, and the closely related chemical 2,3-pentanedione, are naturally occurring substances with a characteristic butter-like odour found in foods such as dairy products, beer and fruits. Diacetyl is also added to various food products as artificial butter flavouring and both substances are present in emissions generated by coffee roasting and grinding. Occupational levels of diacetyl exposure has been linked with the lung disease bronchiolitis obliterans which is life threatening and irreversible. In Great Britain, occupational exposure limits to protect workers' health are based on recommendations from SCOEL (the European Commission Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits). SCOEL has recommended introducing an 8-hour time weighted average occupational exposure limit for diacetyl of 20 ppb and a short term exposure limit (STEL) of 100 ppb. Existing scientific measurement methods lack the necessary sensitivity to measure these levels of exposure.
This report describes a new sensitive method for measurement of diacetyl based on the use of thermal desorption tubes for sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis. The samplers may be used in either pumped (active) or diffusive (passive) mode. For measurement of short duration peak concentrations, or determining compliance with the STEL, pumped sampling is most effective. For longer sampling periods, in particular whole shift monitoring, diffusive sampling is preferable. This method is also applicable to 2,3-pentanedione.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1138.htm

ASTM E2563 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method

This practice allows for the recovery and enumeration of viable and culturable, non-tuberculosis, rapidly growing Mycobacteria  (M. immunogenum, M. chelonae, M. absessus, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) in the presence of high Gram-negative background populations in metalworking fluid field samples. During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. This population is predominantly comprised of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids has been putatively associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) amongst metalgrinding machinists. The detection and enumeration of these organisms will aid in better understanding of occupational health-related problems and a better assessment of antimicrobial pesticide efficacy.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2563.htm

La radioprotection des travailleurs

Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France: bilan 2017
Le bilan de la surveillance des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants concerne l'ensemble des secteurs d'activité soumis à un régime d'autorisation ou de déclaration, y compris ceux de la défense, dans les domaines des activités médicales et vétérinaires, de l'industrie nucléaire ou non nucléaire, de la recherche et de l'enseignement, ainsi que les secteurs concernés par une exposition à la radioactivité naturelle.
L'effectif suivi en 2017 dans le cadre des activités soumises à autorisation ou à déclaration est en augmentation de 0,9 % par rapport à 2016, avec 360 694 travailleurs. Parallèlement, la dose collective1 mesurée par
dosimétrie externe passive s'établit à 53,5 h.Sv pour 2017, contre 66,7 h.Sv en 2016. Avec une forte baisse par rapport à 2016 (- 20 %), cette valeur marque une rupture par rapport à celles observées en 2015 et 2016. Cette baisse significative de la dose collective est liée majoritairement à une baisse d'activité dans le domaine du nucléaire (volume de travaux de maintenance chez EDF moindre qu'en 2016) et de façon complémentaire à un changement méthodologique de plusieurs laboratoires de dosimétrie, intervenu courant 2017, qui évite de sousestimer le bruit de fond lorsque le dosimètre témoin n'est pas retourné par l'employeur avec les dosimètres individuels. La dose individuelle annuelle moyenne, d'une valeur de 0,72 mSv, est quant à elle stable par rapport à l'année précédente. Parmi les 12 712 travailleurs ayant reçu plus de 1 mSv (limite annuelle réglementaire fixée pour la population générale), 2 079 travailleurs ont reçu une dose annuelle supérieure à 5 mSv2. Une dose externe annuelle supérieure à 20 mSv (limite réglementaire de la dose efficace fixée pour les travailleurs) a été enregistrée pour 2 travailleurs. Quatre cas de dépassement de la limite de dose équivalente aux extrémités (500 mSv) ont également été enregistrés.

Source: https://www.irsn.fr/FR/expertise/rapports_expertise/Documents/radioprotection/IRSN_Rapport-Exposition-travailleurs-2017.pdf

Literature study on the uses and risks of nanomaterials as pigments in the European Union

This report provides a review on the safe use of nano-sized pigments when used by professionals, workers or consumers. Extensive literature searches were carried out in combination with analyses of data from national nano-inventories to capture the current state of play. The report provides a list of nano-sized pigments currently identified on the EU market and discusses potential risks arising from their use in paints, coatings, printer toner cartridges, personal care products, tattooes as well as other potential uses of nanopigments. Data for hazard and risk assessment are not available for the vast majority of identified nanopigments. Evidence-based conclusions on the safety of most nanopigments uses cannot be drawn, however, some general observations and conclusions can be derived. Dry pigments present the highest concern because they can be easily inhaled and ingested. Exposures to nano-sized pigments that are integrated into polymer, paint or coating matrices are not thought to be significant, and the risks to consumers from such uses are low. The report also discusses uncertainties associated with the identification of nanopigments (and nanomaterials in general), measurements of exposure to nano-sized pigments and methods of toxicity testing.

Source: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/dd38af13-bca7-11e8-99ee-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF

ASTM E2564 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method

During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. Measurement of mycobacterial cell count densities is an important step in establishing a possible relationship between mycobacteria and occupational health-related allergic responses, for example, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in persons exposed to aerosols of metalworking fluids. It is known that the viable mycobacteria count underestimates the total mycobacterial levels by not counting the non-culturable, possibly dead or moribund population that is potentially equally important in the investigation of occupational health-related problems. The direct microscopic counting method (DMC) described here gives a quantitative assessment of the total numbers of acid-fast bacilli. It involves using acid-fast staining to selectively identify mycobacteria from other bacteria, followed by enumeration or direct microscopic counting of a known volume over a known area. Although other microbes—particularly the Actinomycetes—also stain acid-fast, they are differentiated from the mycobacteria because of their morphology and size. Non-mycobacteria, acid-fast microbes are 50 to 100 times larger than mycobacteria. This practice provides quantitative information on the total (culturable and non-culturable viable, and non-viable) mycobacteria populations. The results are expressed quantitatively as mycobacteria per mL of metalworking fluid sample.

Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2564.htm

Infection Rates and Risk Factors for Infection Among Health Workers During Ebola and Marburg Virus Outbreaks

A Systematic Review
Infection in health workers (HWs) has characterized outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD). We conducted a systematic review to investigate infection and mortality rates and common exposure risks in HWs in EVD and MVD outbreaks.
We searched the EMBASE and PubMed databases to identify articles posted before 27 December 2017, with no language restrictions. Data on the number, frequency, and mortality of HW infection and exposure risks were extracted.
Ninety-four articles related to 22 outbreaks were included. HW infections composed 2%–100% of cases in EVD and 5%–50% of cases in MVD outbreaks. Among exposed HWs, 0.6%–92% developed EVD, and 1%–10% developed MVD. HW infection rates were consistent through outbreaks. The most common exposure risk situations were inadequate personal protective equipment and exposure to patients with unrecognized EVD/MVD. Similar risks were reported in past EVD/MVD outbreaks and in the recent outbreak in West Africa.
Many outbreaks reported high proportions of infected HWs. Similar HW infection rates and exposure risk factors in both past and recent EVD and MVD outbreaks emphasize the need to improve the implementation of appropriate infection control measures consistently across all healthcare settings.

Source: Selvaraj, S. A., Lee, K. E., Harrell, M., Ivanov, I. et Allegranzi, B. (2018). The Journal of infectious diseases (sous presse).

NIOSH Releases Beta Version of New Respirable Crystalline Silica Monitoring Software

Mines can now monitor worker exposure to hazardous respirable crystalline silica (RCS) more effectively thanks to new software developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Program in beta version. This novel, field-based tool called “FAST” (Field Analysis of Silica Tool), works together with commercially available FTIR analyzers (Fourier Transform Infrared) to determine a worker's exposure to RCS dust, providing detailed results immediately following a worker's shift.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-10-03-18.html

Cancer de la vessie et expositions professionnelles aux fluides de coupe

Étude épidémiologique parmi les travailleurs de la sidérurgie en France
L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher s'il existe un risque de cancer de la vessie associé à des expositions professionnelles à des brouillards d'huiles, issus de l'utilisation d'huiles entières ou de fluides aqueux. Une étude cas-témoins a été mise en place au sein d'une cohorte de 22 795 travailleurs de la sidérurgie du Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Les cas de cancer de vessie ont été diagnostiqués entre 2006 et 2012. Trois témoins par cas ont été tirés au sort parmi les sujets de la cohorte. L'évaluation des expositions professionnelles a été réalisée par deux experts.
Cette étude suggère que des expositions professionnelles aux huiles entières sont associées à un risque accru de cancers de la vessie survenant 5 à 25 ans après ces expositions.
Elle ne peut pas exclure un lien avec des expositions récentes aux fluides solubles. En revanche, aucune association n'est mise en évidence avec des expositions plus anciennes, ni avec les expositions aux fluides synthétiques.

Source: Bourgkard, E., Colin, R., Bertrand, C., Veille, M., Genoud, J., Rousselle, D., Girardey, C., Goutet, P., Wild, P., Grzebyk, M. (2018). Références en santé au travail (155), 51-63.

Utilisation des cellules dendritiques en tant que biosenseurs pour la surveillance de la qualité biologique de l’air

Le nombre d'environnements de travail touchés par des problématiques de santé reliées aux bioaérosols est si considérable qu'il est difficile d'en faire un dénombrement précis. Les exemples les plus connus sont les porcheries, fermes laitières, tourbières, scieries et usines alimentaires. Aucune limite d'exposition n'existe pour les différentes composantes des bioaérosols, hormis les recommandations pour les endotoxines et certaines poussières. Toutefois, il est bien connu que l'état sanitaire de ces environnements diffère de site en site et selon leur classe. La nature des bioaérosols détectés dans ces environnements n'est que partiellement définie. Cette situation rend difficile la mise en place des mesures préventives adéquates. L'élaboration d'une méthode permettant d'établir des indices sanitaires ou d'améliorer notre compréhension des déterminants de la qualité de l'air pourrait donc contribuer à favoriser des conditions propices à la santé respiratoire des travailleurs. Les cellules dendritiques sont des cellules du système immunitaire qui expriment divers marqueurs d'activation en présence d'une multitude d'agents exogènes. Ainsi, l'hypothèse générale de cette étude s'appuie sur le fait que les cellules dendritiques puissent être utilisées en tant que biosenseurs afin d'évaluer la qualité de l'air des environnements de travail. Les objectifs sont : 1) établir une méthode de culture de cellules dendritiques permettant de discriminer les agents toxiques/immunogènes des agents inoffensifs; 2) tester l'impact inflammatoire d'échantillons environnementaux complexes; 3) évaluer la relation entre l'activation des cellules dendritiques in vitro et l'inflammation aiguë causée dans un modèle murin.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/101002/n/cellules-dendritiques-biosenseurs-qualite-biologique-air

Outils pratiques et orientations concernant les substances dangereuses

Un certain nombre d'outils et de documents d'orientation ont été mis au point par les États membres, les institutions européennes, les associations d'entreprises, les partenaires sociaux et d'autres acteurs pour aider les entreprises à effectuer des analyses de risque complètes et efficaces. Ces outils illustrent une grande variété d'approches destinées à gérer efficacement les substances dangereuses. Ils couvrent souvent des opérations de travail spécifiques, telles que le remplissage ou le pompage de liquides, ou les procédés de soudure. D'autres sources donnent un aperçu complet de certains groupes de substances, comme les substances sensibilisantes, ou mettent en avant les risques typiques dans certains secteurs.
En outre, en plus de contribuer à une évaluation des risque de haute qualité, la plupart de ces outils proposent de bonnes pratiques, expliquant comment réduire les risques dans des contextes professionnels courants comportant une exposition aux substances dangereuses. Il existe également des outils destiné à aider des acteurs spécifiques, comme les inspecteurs du travail, les petites et moyennes entreprises et les représentants des travailleurs, pour ne citer qu'eux. Il vaut donc vraiment la peine d'explorer le site pour découvrir l'aide à votre disposition.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/themes/dangerous-substances/practical-tools-dangerous-substances

Mission relative à la prévention et à la prise en compte de l’exposition des travailleurs aux agents chimiques dangereux

Rapport remis à la ministre du Travail, Muriel Pénicaud, le 29 août 2018.
Mission sur l'exposition aux agents chimiques dangereux confiée au Professeur Frimat, professeur des universités et praticien hospitalier de l'université de Lille, spécialiste de la santé au travail, avec l'appui et le soutien logistique de la direction générale du travail et de la direction de la sécurité sociale.

Source: https://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/rapport_professeur_frimat.pdf

Le risque chimique

Présent dans tous les secteurs d'activité, le risque chimique reste une préoccupation majeure en matière de risques professionnels. Les produits chimiques peuvent en effet induire de graves effets sur la santé, immédiats ou différés. Parmi les multiples substances employées, les produits classés cancérogènes, mutagènes ou toxiques pour la reproduction (CMR) exposent de nombreux salariés à moyen ou long terme : près de 10 % de la population active est en contact avec au moins un CMR sur le lieu de travail. Du fait de leur nocivité, ces produits nécessitent d'être substitués par d'autres agents moins dangereux, lorsque cela est possible.

Source: (2018). Travail & sécurité, (797).

A Review of Workplace Risk Management Measures for Nanomaterials to Mitigate Inhalation and Dermal Exposure

This review describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management Measures (RMM) for nanomaterials in the workplace. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of workplace RMM for nanomaterials and to determine whether established effectiveness values of conventional chemical substances applied for modelling purposes should be adopted or revised based on available evidence. A literature review was conducted to collate nano-specific data on workplace RMM. Besides the quantitative efficacy values, the library was populated with important covariables such as the study design, measurement type, size of particles or agglomerates/aggregates, and metrics applied. In total 770 records were retrieved from 41 studies for three general types of RMM (engineering controls, respiratory equipment and skin protective equipment: gloves and clothing). Records were found for various sub-categories of the different types of RMM although the number of records for each was generally limited. Significant variation in efficacy values was observed within RMM categories while also considering the respective covariables. Based on a comparative evaluation with efficacy values applied for conventional substances, adapted efficacy values are proposed for various RMM sub-categories (e.g. containment, fume cupboards, FFP2 respirators). It is concluded that RMM efficacy data for nanomaterials are limited and often inconclusive to propose effectiveness values. This review also shed some light on the current knowledge gaps for nanomaterials related to RMM effectiveness (e.g. ventilated walk-in enclosures and clean rooms) and the challenges foreseen to derive reliable RMM efficacy values from aggregated data in the future.

Source: Goede, H., Christopher-de Vries, Y., Kuijpers, E. et Fransman, W. (2018). Annals of work exposures and health.

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