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Cloueuses portatives - Développement de méthodes de diagnostic vibratoire et acoustique
Le fonctionnement des cloueuses portatives étant basé sur un processus d'impact visant à enfoncer un clou, l'utilisation de ces outils expose les travailleurs à des bruits et à des vibrations à caractère impulsionnel, en générant des niveaux très élevés pendant un très court laps de temps. Par ailleurs, l'exposition aux bruits et aux vibrations impulsionnels engendre un risque de développer des maladies professionnelles. Des échanges avec l'Association paritaire pour la santé...
Étude de terrain pour l'évaluation de l'effet du masquage sonore sur la santé et le bien-être au travail dans les bureaux ouverts.
Les systèmes de masquage sonore d'aujourd'hui sont présentés comme des outils pour réduire les nuisances sonores dans les bureaux ouverts. Ces systèmes comprennent des haut-parleurs qui augmentent artificiellement le bruit de fond pour réduire l'intelligibilité de la parole et, selon leurs fabricants, ils réduisent les perturbations et la fatigue cognitive. Ces arguments reposent sur des études dont la représentativité reste limitée puisqu'elle ne repose que sur des expériences de laboratoire...
Méthodologie innovante pour la caractérisation des matériaux acoustiques en laboratoire et étude de son applicabilité sur le terrain
La performance d'un traitement insonorisant se traduit par un coefficient d'absorption, qui est défini théoriquement entre une valeur de 0 (matériau non absorbant) et une valeur de 1 (matériau parfaitement absorbant). Peu précise à plusieurs égards, la mesure de ce coefficient est uniquement réalisée en laboratoire. Elle est caractérisée par la grande variabilité des résultats entre les laboratoires de test et les valeurs d'absorption obtenues atteignent souvent des valeurs non physiques en pratique...
Sound Advice: a Guide to Hearing Conservation Programs
Noise is a serious and widespread problem in many workplaces. Over time, if noise from machinery, processes, and equipment is too loud it can cause permanent hearing loss in workers. But occupational hearing loss ca be prevented if employers, supervisors, workers, and WokSafe BC work together to control noise exposure. The most effective way to do that - and to protect workers hearing- is to implement a noise control and hearing conservation program. Such a program is required whenever noise is above regulated limits. Source: https://www.worksafebc.com/en/resources/health-safety/books-guides/sound...
Questionnaire GABO (gêne acoustique dans les bureaux ouverts)
Le questionnaire GABO (Gêne Acoustique dans les Bureaux Ouverts) permet de recueillir le ressenti des salariés vis-à-vis du bruit dans les open-spaces (type de sources sonores gênantes, type de tâche perturbée, échelle de sensibilité au bruit, perception de leur santé, etc.). Il est accompagné d'une grille Excel destinée à faciliter l'analyse et la synthèse des réponses. Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=outil62
Réduction de la nuisance sonore dans les bureaux ouverts
Un exemple d'utilisation de la norme NF S31-199 en entreprise Dans le secteur tertiaire, les salariés des bureaux ouverts se plaignent très souvent du bruit. Le médecin du travail ou le préventeur d'entreprise sont généralement démunis pour accompagner une démarche globale de réduction de cette nuisance. Des études de terrain ont permis de construire une approche complète permettant à la fois d'objectiver l'acoustique du local et d'éclairer les difficultés ressenties par les salariés...
The Effectiveness of Measures Aimed at Noise Reduction in an Intensive Care Unit
Noise is a significant problem for both hospitalized patients and health care workers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in an intensive care unit. Noise was measured in two phases. In the first phase, the unit’s present level of noise was established over 3 weeks between January 1, 2012, and February 1, 2012. During the month following initial measurements, noise reduction interventions, including staff education and physical space arrangement, were initiated, and device alarms were checked. The second phase of measurement was conducted during...
NIOSH Offers New Guidance to Help Musicians Protect their Hearing
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health published new guidance to help musicians and those who work in the music industry protect their hearing. Professional musicians such as orchestra, band members, music teachers, as well as others in the music industry such as disc jockeys, audio engineers, and crew members are all at risk for developing permanent hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and other hearing disorders from prolonged exposure to loud music. Exposures to noise exceeding 85 decibels over 8 hours (dBA) are considered hazardous, and if the noise reaches 100 dBA, it could...
Reducing the Risk of Hearing Disorders among Musicians
Musicians and others involved in the music industry are at risk of developing permanent hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and other hearing disorders from exposure to loud sounds. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) examines the risks associated with music exposure and provides recommendations to protect their hearing. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2015-184/
Use of the Speech Transmission Index for the assessment of sound annoyance in open-plan offices
In open-plan offices, employees often have to work despite being distracted by multiple sources of speech close to them. This disturbance is even more severe when the surrounding conversations are intelligible. For this reason the disruptive power of such babble-like noises can be quantified by measuring speech intelligibility. As such, the Speech Transmission Index is usually used to assess the quality of open-plan offices. In this article, the STI is used to evaluate the nuisance potential of sound environments in an open-plan office. 57 subjects were confronted with a serial memory task in four...
Choisir une soufflette efficace et sécuritaire
Souvent bruyants, les appareils alimentés à l'air comprimé peuvent cependant être munis de silencieux, cependant l'efficacité de ces derniers varie beaucoup. C'est aussi le cas, d'ailleurs, des soufflettes et des pistolets à air comprimé. Ce document présente les résultats de mesures obtenues sur des appareils déjà testés en 1995 et encore offerts sur le marché ainsi que ceux obtenus sur 91 nouvelles soufflettes, 22 nouveaux silencieux et 6 pistolets aspirateurs. Le rapport contient un guide...
Sound Advice - noise at work in music and entertainment
Sound Advice contains practical guidelines on the control of noise at work in music and entertainment. Representatives of music and entertainment industries together with Environmental Health Officers and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) prepared the guidance. For more details see About Sound Advice. On this site you will find out what you can do to avoid the harmful effects of prolonged exposure to noise - for yourself and for the people you employ or work with. It is closely related to a printed guide. Source : http://www.soundadvice.info/ http://www.hse.gov.uk/noise/musicsound.htm
Panels Manufactured from Vegetable Fibers: An Alternative Approach for Controlling Noises in Indoor Environments
Noise control devices such as panels and barriers, when of high efficiency, generally are of difficult acquisition due to high costs turning in many cases their use impracticable, mainly for limited budget small-sized companies. There is a huge requirement for new acoustic materials that have satisfactory performance, not only under acoustic aspect but also other relevant ones and are of low cost. Vegetable fibers are an alternative solution when used as panels since they promise satisfactory acoustic absorption, according to previous researches, exist in abundance, and derive from renewable sources...
Reducing of the sound pressure level in industrial areas by screening noise sources
This paper presents several ways in which the propagation of acoustic waves produced by an industrial noise source can be attenuated by identifying the optimal location of an acoustic screen near the noise source. Six types of acoustic screens were used, made of six types of materials (of the category used in the field of construction), with or without sound absorbing qualities. The noise source was placed in four different positions in front of the acoustic screen. The microphone was placed in 16 recording positions, at four distances and four heights. The experimentally obtained values indicate...
Effect of noise and redundant auditory alarm signal on semiconductor production operators' response to machine downtime
This paper investigates the effect of noise and the effect of a redundant impulsive auditory alarm signal on production operators' response to machine downtime in a semiconductor manufacturing system. Machine uptime is essential for productive and efficient production system and therefore downtime calls for an immediate response. Given a higher machine-to-man ratio, there is a difficulty in achieving quick response to machine downtime. For this end, ergonomic tower lamps with visual and auditory displays are used in most semiconductor manufacturing system to alert production operators and therefore...
Reducing Exposure to Lead and Noise at Outdoor Firing Ranges
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently published recommendations for reducing exposure to lead and noise at indoor firing ranges [NIOSH 2009]. However, workers and users of outdoor firing ranges may be exposed to similar hazards. This followup document examines exposures at these ranges and recommends steps to reduce such exposures. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2013-104/pdfs/2013-104.pdf
Noise control applications of novel material made of jute : reduction of radiated noise levels of 6 dB and 10 dB
Material used for noise control applications should possess good sound absorption and dampening properties. In this work, the authors have focused on noise control applications of novel material made of jute which is a readily available, cheap and biodegradable natural fiber. Based on physical, flammable and acoustical properties, jute felt shows good sound absorption properties which has been used for noise control in a domestic clothes dryer and a vacuum cleaner. The noise sources in these appliances were ranked by measuring their radiated sound intensity levels. An overall reduction of radiated...
Classrooms with shorter reverberation times lead to a much better signal-to-noise ratio while requiring less vocal effort from teachers
The study presented here is the most extensive, systematic study to examine the impact of reducing reverberation in a working school environment. By installing varying acoustic treatments in three similar classrooms it has been possible to investigate the true effects of different acoustics in occupied schoolrooms. The three classrooms, plus an untreated room, were compared both objectively through acoustic measurements and subjectively through surveying the opinions of pupils, teachers and other adults. The results demonstrate conclusively the benefits to all of improving the acoustic environment...
Mise à jour du répertoire des silencieux, soufflettes et pistolets aspirateurs
Souvent bruyants, les appareils alimentés à l'air comprimé peuvent cependant être munis de silencieux, cependant l'efficacité de ces derniers varie beaucoup. C'est aussi le cas, d'ailleurs, des soufflettes et des pistolets à air comprimé. Ce document présente les résultats de mesures obtenues sur des appareils déjà testés en 1995 et encore offerts sur le marché ainsi que ceux obtenus sur 91 nouvelles soufflettes, 22 nouveaux silencieux et 6 pistolets aspirateurs. Le rapport contient un guide...
La participation du travailleur à l’évaluation environnementale du bruit a généré de nombreuses pistes d’amélioration
Pour identifier les possibilités de réduction des expositions, les principales sources de bruit et notamment les différents dysfonctionnements générateurs de ces niveaux sonores ont été repérés par des groupes de travail polycompétents composés de superviseurs, d’opérateurs et d’agents maintenance. La participation de l’opérateur à l’analyse causale des risques de son environnement a favorisé son implication active dans les actions sécurité générant...
A bit isolator and a chuck isolator reduce the noise radiated by the drill steel and chuck
Among underground coal miners, hearing loss remains one of the most common occupational illnesses. In response to this problem, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) conducts research to reduce the noise emission of underground coal-mining equipment, an example of which is a roof bolting machine. Field studies show that, on average, drilling noise is the most significant contributor to a roof bolting machine operator’s noise exposure. NIOSH OMSHR has determined that the drill steel and chuck are the dominant sources...
One way transmission system for sound waves
Mechanisms to truly control the direction of sound waves are still in their infancy but r esearchers at the California Institute of Technology have created the first tunable acoustic diode, a device that allows acoustic waves to travel only in one direction, at controllable frequencies. "We exploited a physical mechanism that causes a sharp transition between transmitting and nontransmitting states of the diode," says Chiara Daraio, professor of aeronautics and applied physics at Caltech and lead author on the study. "Using experiments, simulations, and analytical predictions, we...
Les recycleurs s’ouvrent à l’isolation acoustique
Ils sont peu visibles. Mais les chimistes, pétrochimistes, papetiers, recycleurs et autres producteurs de matériaux naturels partagent la même volonté farouche de se développer dans la construction . Avec le l ancement du Grenelle de l'environnement en 2007 et la nouvelle réglementation thermique (RT 2012) généralisant la norme Bâtiment basse consommation (BBC), les recycleurs s’ouvrent à l’isolation acoustique : Le Relais recycle les fibres des jeans usagés en panneaux et rouleaux d’isolation thermique...
Traitement acoustique des locaux de travail
Le local a un rôle déterminant dans l'exposition au bruit des travailleurs. Par sa réverbération, il augmente le bruit provenant des machines et affecte tout l'espace de travail. Le code du travail fixe les caractéristiques minimales que doivent présenter les locaux. Ce document rappelle quelques aspects techniques, décrit comment qualifier un local, précise les exigences réglementaires et explique le principe et la mise en oeuvre du traitement acoustique d'un local. Ce document annule et remplace la fiche pratique de sécurité...
Reducing Noise Hazards for Call and Dispatch Center Operators
Workers at call and dispatch cen­ters may suffer health risks asso­ciated with high noise levels from their headsets. T he NIOSH evaluations did not reveal hearing loss problems among call center operators and dispatch­ers that can be directly attributed to noise exposures from their headsets or the surrounding environment. Howev­er, most workers interviewed reported various symptoms often associated with prolonged exposure to high noise levels. Symptoms included ringing in their ears, headaches, irritability, increased tension, and fatigue. There are international standards on...
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