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Comment étudier l'effet d'un protecteur auditif sur l'audibilité des signaux avertisseurs de danger?
Le port de protecteurs auditifs (bouchons d'oreilles, casques anti-bruit) est susceptible de nuire à la perception des signaux sonores indicateurs de danger, comme l'alarme de recul d'un chariot élévateur. Dans le cadre d'un partenariat entre l'INRS et la SNCF, l'effet du port de protecteurs a été évalué à partir de signaux sonores caractéristiques des trois principaux métiers du secteur ferroviaire. Source: Arz, J.-P. Hygiène et sécurité du travail , No 243, Juin 2016, p. 64-69. http...
Effect of noise on comfort in open-plan offices
Application of an assessment questionnaire Open-plan offices account for 60% of French office workspaces. The noise levels recorded in this type of environment are much lower than those encountered in industrial workplaces. Nevertheless, surveys show that noise is considered by employees as the main source of discomfort. A first questionnaire dedicated to noise discomfort was produced in 2013 and tested on a panel made up of 217 people working in 7 French companies. Today, it also makes it possible to address the issues of fatigue related to ambient sound, but above all, the survey aims to study...
Noise peaks influence communication in the operating room
An observational study Noise peaks are powerful distractors. This study focuses on the impact of noise peaks on surgical teams' communication during 109 long abdominal surgeries. We related measured noise peaks during 5-min intervals to the amount of observed communication during the same interval. Results show that noise peaks are associated with less case-relevant communication; this effect is moderated by the level of surgical experience; case-relevant communications decrease under high noise peak conditions among junior, but not among senior surgeons. However, case-irrelevant communication...
Modeling acoustic propagation in a compartment fire
Firefighters unable to move and in need of rescue use an audible alarm to signal for help. Rescue teams can then follow this sound to the firefighter. This alarm is governed by NFPA 1982 : Standard on Personal Alert Safety System (PASS). Introduced in 1983, the PASS has saved many firefighter lives. However, a number of incidents have occurred where the PASS is less effective. There have been incidents where the PASS was heard sporadically on the fireground, or where localization of the alarm was difficult, leading to injury and loss of life. We hypothesized that the temperature field created by...
The effect of firefighter personal protective equipment on auditory thresholds
Communication on a fire scene is essential to the safety of firefighters. Not only to be able to hear and understand radio chatter, but also alarm signals used on the fireground. One such alarm is the Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) device. This device is used to help locate a downed firefighter. One part of this complex problem is the effect of the protective equipment (helmet, eye protection, hood, coat) on hearing. Previous findings have shown the effect of this protective equipment on head related transfer functions using a KEMAR. [Suits et al. (2013, June). Paper presented at the International...
Noise and communication: A three-year update
Noise is omnipresent and impacts us all in many aspects of daily living. Noise can interfere with communication not only in industrial workplaces, but also in other work settings (e.g. open-plan offices, construction, and mining) and within buildings (e.g. residences, arenas, and schools). The interference of noise with communication can have significant social consequences, especially for persons with hearing loss, and may compromise safety (e.g. failure to perceive auditory warning signals), influence worker productivity and learning in children, affect health (e.g. vocal pathology, noise-induced...
Open-plan office noise: The susceptibility and suitability of different cognitive tasks for work in the presence of irrelevant speech
The aim of the present study was to test which tasks are suitable for work in open-plan offices according to how susceptible they are to disruption produced by the mere presence of irrelevant speech. The tasks were chosen to tap fundamental capacities of office work involving: search for relevant information, remembering material, counting, and generation of words. The hypothesis was that tasks requiring semantic processing should be impaired by irrelevant speech. To determine the magnitude of performance decrease, two sound conditions (quiet, irrelevant speech) were compared. The results showed...
Sécurité des travailleurs derrière les véhicules lourds - Évaluation de trois types d'alarmes sonores de recul
Plusieurs accidents graves impliquant des véhicules en marche arrière sont enregistrés chaque année. Il est donc primordial d’assurer la conception optimale des signaux avertisseurs de recul afin d’alerter les travailleurs et de les aider à localiser le véhicule en marche arrière, tout en limitant la gêne due au bruit. Les avertisseurs sonores présentent un avantage sur les avertisseurs visuels puisqu’ils captent habituellement l’attention des individus. Toutefois, des accidents peuvent survenir dans des environnements...
Distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions
Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise...
The Balancing Act: New Hearing Conservation Technology as Functional Enablers
Strike a balance between protecting workers' hearing and helping them maintain situational awareness and the ability to communicate. In this article, we will review the options hearing managers can employ to strike an appropriate balance among the challenges of achieving hearing protection, situational awareness and two-way communication. Source : http://ehstoday.com/hearing-protection/balancing-act-new-hearing-conservation-technology-functional-enablers
Wireless Communication : Good team communication under difficult and potentially dangerous conditions required
Team communication is absolutely essential in creating a safe, productive and effective work environment. Ambient noise can dramatically affect the clarity of team communications. First responders may be subjected to deafening siren noise while en route to a rescue operation, but they are not alone. Many industries expose workers to high noise levels on the job. Airport ground personnel must contend with the roar of jet engines. Road and construction crews must communicate against a backdrop of heavy equipment. Factory workers must talk over the noise of a manufacturing plant. These seemingly unrelated...
Low-pass filtered masking noise makes speech-in-noise tests more sensitive
An easily accessible screening test can be valuable in the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The Dutch National Hearing Foundation developed ‘Earcheck’, an internet-based speech-in-noise test, presenting CVC-words in stationary broadband noise. However, its sensitivity to detect NIHL appeared to be low, 51% ( Leensen et al, 2011 , part 1). This study showed that Earcheck with low-pass filtered noise made the best distinction between normal hearing and NIHL, without reducing test reliability. The use of this noise condition improved the sensitivity of Earcheck to 95%....
Relatively high intelligibility scores are possible with an in-ear integrated hearing protection communications device.
Integrated hearing protection systems are designed to enhance free field and radio communications during military operations while protecting against the damaging effects of high-level noise exposure. A study was conducted to compare the effect of increasing the radio volume on the intelligibility of speech over the radios of two candidate systems, in-ear and muff-style, in 85-dBA speech babble noise presented free field. At the highest volume, subjects achieved 79% with the in-ear device but only 69% with the muff-style device, averaged across the gender of listener/talker pairs and consonant...
Bridge the gap between traditional hearing protection and communication.
The hearing capabilities of a worker are very important for communication, gaining situational awareness, and reducing the risk of other hazards or injury. However, understanding communications in extreme noise and at work sites is always challenging while wearing hearing protection. Too much protection and a worker cannot hear and is vulnerable to other safety hazards. Too little protection, and the worker is inadequately protected and at a higher risk for noise-induced hearing loss . For those who seek to bridge the gap between traditional hearing protection and communication, the technology...
Stress and difficulty communicating in the chemotherapy clinic
This study measured the noise levels in the Portland Veteran's Affairs Medical Center's outpatient chemotherapy clinic. Patients, visitors, and staff members filled out anonymous surveys regarding their reactions to noise levels. Noise measurement analysis indicated that levels were at or above 70 dB SPL for less than ten minutes during the 11-hour recording window. The patient and visitor surveys indicated that both groups were unbothered by noise in the clinic. However, most staff members were bothered by or concerned about noise levels, and many felt that it caused stress and difficulty...
Communiquer sans entendre le bruit ambiant
Des casques supercommunicants et antibruit permettront une meilleure communication entre opérateurs en milieu industriel. Les fabricants d'EPI se penchent sur les solutions Bluetooth adaptées à l'environnement industriel. «Les prochaines générations de ces appareils devraient permettre de communiquer avec un plus grand nombre de personnes et sur des portées plus grandes.» Des détecteurs sans fil mesureront l'exposition du travailleur et des logiciels performants donneront «avec précision combien d'heures ou...
Increased absence rates are found in shared and open-plan offices.
The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P<0.001) when adjusting for confounders. Compared to cellular offices, occupants in 2-person offices had 50% more days of sickness absence, occupants in 3–6-person offices had 36% more days of sickness absence and occupants in open-plan offices (>6 persons) had 62% more days of sickness absence. The study concludes that occupants sharing an office...
Support and determination to get accustomed to hearing protector use are important factors in hearing conservation for musicians.
Despite a high level of sound exposure and a fairly large selection of earplugs available, musicians have often been reported to use personal hearing protectors only seldom. Musicians reported that earplugs hampered listening to their own and their colleagues' playing; earplugs affected either timbre or dynamics, or both. Additionally, several reasons related to discomfort of use were itemized. The research therefore tested subjects. With the REAT procedure, the values obtained in sound field were relatively close to the manufacturer's nominal specifications. Then, subjects were tested...
Un système de climatisation qui déplace de gros volumes d’air, mais lentement, si bien qu’on n’entend rien.
M.Tateo Nakajima, associé de la firme d'acoustique Artec parle de la nouvelle salle de concert de l'Orchestre symphonique de Montréal. Les qualités acoustiques de la nouvelle salle résultent avant tout du respect d'une exigence primordiale chez Artec concernant les bruits extérieurs: l'isolation phonique. Jack Diamond, membre du cabinet d'architectes Diamond-Schmitt, a trouvé le moyen de l'obtenir en faisant reposer la salle sur des coussins acoustiques en caoutchouc formant une enveloppe distincte des fondations extérieures...
Less overall comfort of insert earplugs is associated with an increase in attenuation.
Noise-induced hearing loss is almost always preventable if properly fitted hearing protectors are worn to reduce exposure. Many individuals choose not to wear hearing protection because it may interfere with effective communication in the workplace or it may be uncomfortable. Hearing protector comfort has not received the same amount of attention as noise reduction capability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comfort level of two different types of insert earplugs as well as the attenuation levels achieved by the earplugs. Attenuation levels were obtained with a commercially available...
“Speaker’s comfort and voice health in classrooms” project shows speakers adjust their voices to other acoustic cues than only loudness.
The indirect auditory feedback from one's own voice arises from sound reflections at the room boundaries or from sound reinforcement systems. The relative variations of indirect auditory feedback are quantified through room acoustic parameters such as the room gain and the voice support, rather than the reverberation time. Variation in voice level is induced by the acoustic environment as a consequence of the sidetone compensation or Lombard effect. In the range of typical rooms for speech, the variations in overall voice level that result in a constant autophonic level are on the order of...
An association between occupational noise exposure of low to moderate level and sickness absence is possible…
But to settle the question more high quality studies are needed. Noise in non-industrial workplaces is an increasing problem. Annoyance and complaints over noise are frequently reported in these workplaces, whereas the risk of hearing damage is usually not the major concern. Could it be a cause of increased sickness absence via a mechanism starting with job dissatisfaction or via health problems caused by the noise exposure? Only 3 epidemiological studies have investigated the effect of occupational noise on sickness absence. In the one study most pertinent to the question, noise was associated...
Plusieurs gymnases d'école nouvellement construits ne respectent pas les normes de performance acoustiques attendues (temps de réflexion).
Cette étude montre que les finitions des gymnases sont principalement acoustiquement réfléchissantes, à l’exception de bandes continues du panneau absorbant du mur supérieur autour du périmètre des salles. Après l’installation d'une autre bande continue de panneau absorbant au-dessous des panneaux existants, les temps de réflexion (RT) ont été remesurés et se sont trouvés plus hauts qu’auparavant. Un champ acoustique insuffisamment diffus et des modes d’onde stationnaire non interrompus...
En centre d’appel de multiples facteurs engendrent de la fatigue, des troubles de la voix, du sommeil et du caractère ainsi que du stress.
Une enquête épidémiologique a été conduite par l'INRS dans les centres d'appels téléphoniques (CT). Il s'agissait de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques organisationnelles qui ont des conséquences sur la santé. Quatorze facteurs organisationnels (FO) ont été identifiés comme étant les plus souvent associés aux contraintes. Ainsi, les conditions de travail sont souvent difficiles par la conjonction de multiples facteurs, entre autres, une ambiance sonore perturbatrice, l'utilisation...
It’s time to let the spring water run! Best masking sound in open office plans.
The performance results and subjective perceptions showed that the spring water sound was the most optimal speech masker whereas vocal music produced negative effects similar to those of speech. Fifty-four subjects were tested in seven sound conditions: speech, silence and five masked speech conditions. The five masking sounds were filtered pink noise, ventilation noise, instrumental music, vocal music and the sound of spring water. They were superimposed on speech. In each of the seven sound conditions, the subjects performed a short-term memory task, a proofreading task and a creative thinking...
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