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Use of the kurtosis statistic in an evaluation of the effects of noise and solvent exposures on the hearing thresholds of workers
An exploratory study The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether the kurtosis metric can contribute to investigations of the effects of combined exposure to noise and solvents on human hearing thresholds. Twenty factory workers exposed to noise and solvents along with 20 workers of similar age exposed only to noise in eastern China were investigated using pure-tone audiometry (1000–8000 Hz). Exposure histories and shift-long noise recording files were obtained for each participant. The data were used in the calculation of the cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and CNE adjusted...
Preventing Hearing Loss Caused by Chemical (Ototoxicity) and Noise Exposure
Millions of workers are exposed to noise in the workplace every day and when uncontrolled, noise exposure may cause permanent hearing loss. Research demonstrates exposure to certain chemicals, called ototoxicants, may cause hearing loss or balance problems, regardless of noise exposure. Substances including certain pesticides, solvents, and pharmaceuticals that contain ototoxicants can negatively affect how the ear functions, causing hearing loss, and/or affect balance. The risk of hearing loss is increased when workers are exposed to these chemicals while working around elevated noise levels....
Ototoxic chemicals
Chemicals that result in hearing loss It is well documented that occupational noise exposure is a significant health hazard that leads to permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and we have the National Exposure Standard for Occupational Noise to deal with this. It is less well known that a substantial number of medications and common industrial chemicals can also cause hearing loss themselves or exacerbate the effects of noise. These chemicals are said to be ototoxic (oto = ear, toxic = poisonous). They may damage the cochlea in the inner ear and/or the auditory neurological pathways leading...
Bruit et substances ototoxiques : cocktail à risque pour l'audition
De nombreuses études ont mis en évidence un risque accru de troubles auditifs du fait de phénomènes de synergies entre certains agents chimiques et le bruit. Quelles sont les substances concernées ? Comment fonctionnent ces co-expositions? Quels sont les effets sur l'homme ? Cet article apporte un éclairage sur ces questions. Source: http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_DC%208/$File/DC8.pdf
Ethylbenzene-Induced Hearing Loss, Neurobehavioral Function, and Neurotransmitter Alterations in Petrochemical Workers
Objective : To estimate hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alteration induced by ethylbenzene in petrochemical workers. Methods : From two petrochemical plants, 246 and 307 workers exposed to both ethylbenzene and noise were recruited—290 workers exposed to noise only from a power station plant and 327 office personnel as control group, respectively. Hearing and neurobehavioral functions were evaluated. Serum neurotransmitters were also determined. Results : The prevalence of hearing loss was much higher in petrochemical groups than that in power station and control...
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss : Scientific Advances
Exposure to loud noise continues to be the largest cause of hearing loss in the adult population. The problem of NIHL impacts a number of disciplines. US standards for permissible noise exposure were originally published in 1968 and remain largely unchanged today. Indeed, permissible noise exposure for US personnel is significantly greater than that allowed in numerous other countries, including for example, Canada, China, Brazil, Mexico, and the European Union. However, there have been a number of discoveries and advances that have increased our understanding of the mechanisms of NIHL. These advances...
Combined Exposures: An update from the International commission on biological effects of noise
International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) Team 8 deals with the effects of combined "agents" in the urban and work place settings. Results presented at the ICBEN conference indicate that some pesticides, more specifically the organophosphates, and a wider range of industrial chemicals are harmful to the auditory system at concentrations often found in occupational settings. Effects of occupational noise on hearing are exacerbated by toluene and possibly by carbon monoxide. Several of the chemicals studied found to be potentially toxic not only to hair cells in the...
The co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in the prevalence of hypertension
The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure. Biological interaction of two variables on hypertension was calculated using the synergistic index. The results indicate that exposure to noise or a mixture of organic solvents may be associated with the prevalence of hypertension in car manufacturing company workers and co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in this regard. Therefore appropriate preventive programs in these workers recommended. Source : Mirsaeed Attarchi et al. Combined effects of exposure...
Report of an International Expert Symposium on the usefulness of Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE) Testing in Occupational Health Surveillance
HSE is interested in exploring options to improve the standards of noise health surveillance to assist dutyholders in meeting the aspirations of a robust occupational health surveillance model that enables early detection of signs or symptoms of ill health and useful and timely data that can enable preventative actions in reducing irreversible noise induced hearing. Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/noise/OAE-expert-symposium-paper-jan-2012.pdf
Effet des substances chimiques sur l’audition - Interactions avec le bruit
Bien que le bruit soit le principal facteur de la surdité d'origine professionnelle, certaines substances chimiques peuvent produire des effets ototoxiques qui pourraient rendre l'oreille plus vulnérable à une agression sonore, comparativement au bruit seul. Il s'agit notamment de solvants, d'asphyxiants, de métaux et de pesticides, largement répandus dans les milieux de travail. Au Québec, plus de 400 000 travailleurs sont exposés à des niveaux de bruit élevés, ce qui soulève des inquiétudes quant...
NIOSH Researchers Developed a Novel Training Tool that Simulates the Effects of Noise Exposure on Hearing Loss
Job-induced hearing loss is a big problem in today's work settings, affecting workers in industry sectors such as manufacturing, construction, mining, transportation, agriculture, and the military. Approximately 22 million workers are exposed on the job to noise levels that could harm their hearing. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed the NIOSH Hearing Loss Simulator, a software training and communication tool that demonstrates the effects of noise exposure on a worker's hearing without exposing the person to harmful noise levels or toxic materials...
Combined exposure to Noise and Ototoxic Substances
Noise-induced hearing loss remains one of the most prominent occupational diseases in Europe. However, noise is no longer perceived as the only source of work-related hearing damage and increasing attention is being paid to the risks of combined exposure to high-level noise and ototoxic substances, that is, those which can affect the structures and/or the function of the inner ear and the associated signal transmission pathways in the nervous system. This publication aims to provide an up-to-date picture of our knowledge in this field. It includes: a description of the basic features of the physiological...
Chemicals and Noise
A Hazardous Combination It is no surprise that most work-related hearing loss is caused by noise exposure, and that genetics and age can also be contributors. What may not be as well known is that some chemical exposures can pose a potential risk to hearing. Both animal experiments and human studies suggest that certain chemical exposures may cause "ototoxic" effects (damage the hearing and balance functions of the ear). In general, the exposure concentrations that cause these effects are considered high. However, exposure to some of these chemicals and noise at the same time can significantly...

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