2014-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Outils vibrants

Paramètres biomécaniques et sensorimoteurs affectant la réponse biodynamique du système main-bras
L'exposition aux vibrations est une préoccupation importante au regard de la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques aux membres supérieurs. Les vibrations main-bras sont spécifiquement reconnues pour être la cause du syndrome des vibrations, une maladie atteignant les doigts et la main en matière vasculaire, musculo-squelettique et neurosensoriel. De longues durées et de fortes intensités de vibration peuvent accélérer l'apparition des symptômes.
Cette étude, qui comporte deux volets, a servi à explorer différentes variables pouvant influencer la transmission de la vibration aux membres supérieurs tout comme le recrutement musculaire. Douze participants regroupés selon deux somatotypes (six ectomorphes et six mésomorphes) ont participé à chacun de ces volets. L'utilisation d'un pot vibrant a permis de contrôler certaines variables afin d'exposer les sujets à diverses combinaisons d'amplitude (2,5 m/s2, 5 m/s2 et 10 m/s2) et de fréquence (20, 40 et 65 Hz) de vibration pour les deux volets. La tâche des sujets consistait à maintenir la poignée instrumentée du pot vibrant pendant une période de dix secondes.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-outils-vibrants-r-815.html

So How Accurate Are These Smartphone Sound Measurement Apps?

As of June 2013, 60% of all mobile subscribers use smartphones—that's more than 140 million devices. Apple iOS and Google Android platforms account for 93% of those devices [Nielsen, 2013]. Smartphone developers now offer many sound measurement applications (apps) using the devices' built-in microphone (or through an external microphone for more sophisticated applications). The use of smartphone sound measurement apps can have a tremendous and far-reaching impact in the areas of noise research and noise control in the workplace as every smartphone can be potentially turned into a dosimeter or a sound level meter [Maisonneuve et al., 2010; Williams and Sukara, 2013]. However, in order for smartphone apps to gain acceptance in the occupational environment, the apps must meet certain minimal criteria for functionality, accuracy, and relevancy to the users in general and the worker in particular.

Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2014/04/09/sound-apps/

Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss are associated with work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital

Objective: This study focuses on work-related injuries that required admission to hospital in a population of male workers exposed to occupational noise (≥80 dBA) which some displayed a hearing loss due to their exposure.
Methods: The study population count 46 550 male workers, 1670 (3.6%) of whom incurred at least one work-related injury requiring admission to hospital within a period of 5 years following hearing tests conducted between 1987 and 2005. The noise exposure and hearing loss-related data were gathered during occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) screening. The hospital data were used to identify all members of the study population who were admitted, and the reason for admission. Finally, access to the death-related data made it possible to identify participants who died during the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards model taking into account hearing status, noise levels, age and cumulative duration of noise exposure at the time of the hearing test established the risk of work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital.
Results: For each dB of hearing loss, a statistically significant risk increase was observed (HR=1.01 dB 95% CI 1.006 to 1.01). An association (HR=2.36 95% CI 2.01 to 2.77) was also found between working in an occupational ambient noise ≥100 dBA and the risk of injury.
Conclusions: From a safety perspective, this issue is highly relevant; especially when workers are exposed to intense ambient noise and NIHL.

Source: Serge-André Girard, Tony Leroux, Marilene Courteau, Michel Picard, Fernand Turcotte, Olivier Richer. Injury Prevention. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040828

Prevalence of Workers With Shifts in Hearing by Industry

A Comparison of OSHA and NIOSH Hearing Shift Criteria
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of workers with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health significant threshold shifts (NSTS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard threshold shifts (OSTS), and with OSTS with age correction (OSTS-A), by industry using North American Industry Classification System codes.
Methods: From 2001 to 2010, worker audiograms were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for NSTS were estimated by industry. NSTS, OSTS, and OSTS-A prevalences were compared by industry.
Results: Twenty percent of workers had an NSTS, 14% had an OSTS, and 6% had an OSTS-A. For most industries, the OSTS and OSTS-A criteria identified 28% to 36% and 66% to 74% fewer workers than the NSTS criteria, respectively.
Conclusions: Use of NSTS criteria allowing for earlier detection of shifts in hearing is recommended for improved prevention of occupational hearing loss.

Source: Masterson, Elizabeth A. PhD, CPH, COHC; Sweeney, Marie Haring PhD; Deddens, James A. PhD; Themann, Christa L. MA, CCC-A; Wall, David K. MAS. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 446–455
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000124

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