2013-01-01 12:00 - Messages

Centre d’appels : que faire en cas de choc acoustique ?

Conseils de l’INRS pour répondre à l’urgence et prévenir le risque auditif
Un choc acoustique expose un téléopérateur via son casque d’écoute à un niveau de bruit élevé. Il peut entraîner des traumatismes. L’INRS propose une procédure à suivre pour traiter ce problème lorsqu’il survient dans un centre d’appel : prise en charge immédiate du téléopérateur exposé, recherche des causes pour corriger le problème à la source et mise en place de mesures pour prévenir le risque auditif.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/procedure-choc-acoustique.html

Réglementation nuisances physiques : Une approche commune

Les textes réglementaires relatifs aux quatre nuisances physiques générées au travail que sont le bruit, les vibrations, les champs électromagnétiques et les rayonnements optiques artificiels peuvent être d'un abord difficile pour des non-spécialistes.
Afin de faciliter leur approche, nous présentons ici leurs fondements communs et les grands principes qui les régissent.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%206128

Sécurité des travailleurs derrière les véhicules lourds - Évaluation de trois types d'alarmes sonores de recul

Plusieurs accidents graves impliquant des véhicules en marche arrière sont enregistrés chaque année. Il est donc primordial d’assurer la conception optimale des signaux avertisseurs de recul afin d’alerter les travailleurs et de les aider à localiser le véhicule en marche arrière, tout en limitant la gêne due au bruit. Les avertisseurs sonores présentent un avantage sur les avertisseurs visuels puisqu’ils captent habituellement l’attention des individus. Toutefois, des accidents peuvent survenir dans des environnements de travail bruyants lorsque les avertisseurs sonores ne sont pas entendus ou sont ignorés. Récemment, un nouveau type d’alarme de recul a été mis au point en Europe et a fait son apparition en Amérique du Nord. Cette alarme qui repose sur l’utilisation d’un bruit à large bande de fréquences présenterait plusieurs avantages, mais aucune étude approfondie n’a encore permis d’en évaluer la performance en milieu de travail.
Ce projet permettra de vérifier si cette technologie améliore la détection et la localisation auditive des alarmes des véhicules en marche arrière. Les résultats du projet aideront les milieux de travail dans leur choix d’alarmes de recul pour assurer la sécurité des travailleurs.


Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-763.pdf

 

Valeurs limites d'exposition au bruit et port de protecteurs individuels (ED 133)

La protection acoustique réellement procurée par les protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (serre-tête antibruit, bouchons d'oreille...) est généralement inférieure à celle annoncée par les fabricants. Cette publication propose une méthode et des outils pour estimer le niveau sonore réellement subi par les salariés lorsqu'ils portent des protections antibruit.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%20133

Mining, Manufacturing, and Construction industries need better engineering controls for noise

The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among U.S. industries. 2000–2008 audiograms for male and female workers ages 18–65, who had higher occupational noise exposures than the general population, were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for hearing loss were estimated and compared across industries. In our sample, 18% of workers had hearing loss. Workers in the Mining, Manufacturing, and Construction industries need better engineering controls for noise and stronger hearing conservation strategies. More hearing loss research is also needed within traditional “low-risk” industries like Real Estate.

Source: Elizabeth A. Masterson et al.  Prevalence of hearing loss in the United States by industry.  Am. J. Ind. Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22082
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajim.22082/pdf

Vibration and mechanical shock exposure strongly associated with prevalence of neck pain

The objective of this study was to determine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock exposure from quad bike use are associated with the prevalence of neck and low back pain (LBP) in New Zealand farmers and rural workers. Physical exposures (mechanical shocks), employee status, and low levels of workplace satisfaction are all significantly associated with the 12-month prevalence of LBP in this rural workforce that regularly uses quad bikes. Both vibration and mechanical shock exposure were strongly associated with 12-month prevalence of neck pain. The 7-day prevalence of neck pain showed a non-significant association with mechanical shock and vibration.

Source: Stephan Milosavljevic, Nasser Bagheri1, Radivoj M. Vasiljev, David I. Mcbride and Borje Rehn. Does Daily Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Mechanical Shock Relate to the Prevalence of Low Back and Neck Pain in a Rural Workforce? The Annals of Occupational Hygiene (2012), Vol. 56, Issue 1, p. 10-17. http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/1/10.abstract

The co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in the prevalence of hypertension

The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure. Biological interaction of two variables on hypertension was calculated using the synergistic index. The results indicate that exposure to noise or a mixture of organic solvents may be associated with the prevalence of hypertension in car manufacturing company workers and co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in this regard. Therefore appropriate preventive programs in these workers recommended.

Source : Mirsaeed Attarchi et al. Combined effects of exposure to occupational noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure in car manufacturing company workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22086
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajim.22086/abstract

Effects of hospital noise on staff: Increased stress, annoyance and burnout, but what about job performance?

Hospitals are often noisy and not conducive to staff performance. Indeed, many staff believe that noise negatively affects their professional performance, quality of work, and ability to concentrate and communicate. Research shows that increased stress and annoyance, increased rates of burnout, and reduced occupational health are a few of the possible effects of hospital noise on staff. However, only a few hospital studies have directly linked noise to job performance. Results show that noise and distractions can potentially deteriorate mental efficiency and short-term memory and increase errors, but other studies have shown no significant effects. Alarm fatigue is also of concern, as staff may tune out, silence, or disable alarms because they are desensitized or exhausted by them. This paper will discuss what is currently known about hospital noise and staff performance and what questions remain. On-going studies relating the sound environment to staff performance in medical simulations will also be highlighted.

Source: Gabriel Messingher1, Erica Ryherd1, and Jeremy Ackerman. Hospital noise and staff performance. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Volume 132, Issue 3, pp. 2031-2031 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4755468

 

An ongoing challenge to increase workplace awareness and attention to the risks of vibration exposure

Although the risks associated with vibration exposure have been known for a long time, the importance of risk prevention has increased in Europe since the implementation of the Machine Directives in 1989 (1989/392/EC) and the Vibration Directive in 2002 (2002/44/CE). These Directives challenged manufacturers to design low-vibration tools, and employers to manage the site specific risks of vibration exposure. Field experience has shown that many companies using vibrating tools have never carried out a risk-management program, and that they continue to ignore their responsibilities in the Vibration Directive. Because of this, European States are now developing alternative approaches to prevention, which typically shift the balance of risk management responsibility entirely onto employers. The ongoing challenge will be to increase workplace awareness of, and attention to, the risks of vibration exposure.


Source: Patrice Manu Donati. Joël’s Breaker:Forty Years of European Vibration Prevention. Industrial Health 2012, 50, 370–376.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_50_5_370.pdf

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